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Stephen Hawking’s new research: ‘There are no black holes’

Research paper on black holes recent

❶Degeneracy pressure is an effect that results from quantum mechanical interactions when the density of subatomic particles increases. Do you need a professionally written free example essay or sample research paper in your discipline?

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The development of a star is because of a hydrogen atom. Stars form from the condensation of clouds of gas that contain hydrogen. Bunn The atoms of the cloud are then pulled together by gravity. The energy produced from this cloud is so great that when it first collides, a nuclear reaction occurs. The gases within the star start to burn continuously.

The hydrogen gas is usually the first type of gas consumed in a star and then other gas elements such as carbon, oxygen, and helium are consumed. This chain reaction of explosions fuels the star for millions or billions of years depending on the amount of gases there are. Stars are born and reborn from an explosion of a previous star. Particles and helium are brought together the same way the last star was born. Throughout the life of a star, it manages to avoid collapsing. The gravitational pull from the core of the star has to equal the gravitational pull of the gasses, which form a type of orbit.

When this equality is broken, the star can go into several different stages. Some stars that are at least thirty times larger than our sun can form black holes and other kinds of stars. Stars explode at the end of their lifetime, sometimes when they explode the stars leave a remnant of gasses and dust behind.

In the beginning of the 20th century, Einstein proposed his theory of general relativity. The formula worked out by Michell and rederived, this time without mistakes in the derivation, by Karl Schwarzschild, gives the Schwarzschild radius for any massive body that is, a body containing mass: Vesc for any body smaller than this radius would exceed that of light, and since general relativity forbids this; any matter within RS would be crushed into the center.

Thus RS can effectively be thought of as the boundary of a black hole, called an event horizon because all events within RS are causally disconnected from the rest of the universe. In an aphorism coined by John Wheeler , "black holes have no hair," hair meaning surface features from which details of it's formation might be obtained. There are no perturbations in its event horizon, no magnetic fields. The hole is perfectly spherical and in fact has only three attributes: Of these properties, it is only the mass that concerns astronomers.

As a cloud of gas contracts, the interior heats up until the core is so hot and dense that nuclear reactions can occur. This state of equilibrium, during which a star is said to be on the main sequence, lasts until the hydrogen in the core is used up, about 10 billion years for a star like the sun, whereupon gravity will resume shrinking the star.

Exactly what occurs next depends on the complicated interactions between different layers of the star, but generally, the star will explode in a supernova. If there is any remnant of this explosion, its further evolution depends almost exclusively on it's mass. Degeneracy pressure is an effect that results from quantum mechanical interactions when the density of subatomic particles increases.

As it depends only on this density, it is non-thermal and will remain no matter how much the star cools down. This was the general base that general relativity gave to astronomers, but just because something is allowed to happen doesn't mean that it does. Most astronomers resisted such absurd realities. Astronomers are very conservative by nature, and some of the most respected and influential astronomers of the day rejected this idea so soundly that it wasn't until the 60's that any actual searches began.

At first, the only instruments available were the old familiar optical telescopes. Optical telescopes are just what they sound like, telescopes sensitive to the visible portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.

This spectrum can reveal much information regarding the source of the light. The color indicates the temperature of a star. By combining the type of star, identified by observing lots of other stars with similar characteristics, and our models of stellar processes with a measurement of the star's luminosity, it is possible to calculate the distance to the star. We can even determine the chemical composition of the star by observing any emission or absorption lines in the spectra.

Furthermore, these lines are very distinctive, and if they appear in the correct relation to each other but have been Doppler-shifted towards the red or blue ends of the spectrum, a measurement of the star's speed relative to the earth can be obtained.

The only distinguishing feature of a black hole is its gravity, however, and searching for a black hole with an optical telescope is next to impossible. A black hole does not give off any light. It's too small to observe by blocking out stars behind it.

It could act as a gravitational lens, but to do so it would have to be directly in line with the Earth and some bright object, and even then there would be no way to distinguish between a black hole or a very dim star. Still, there was on promising method proposed by Russian astronomers Zel'dovich and Guseinov in If the black hole was in a binary system with another, normal star, the light curve of the system would give it away. Binary systems comprise about half of all known stars, so it is not unlikely that a black hole might be found next to a normal star.

In a spectroscopic binary system, the stars rotate about their center of mass and the light will be Doppler shifted. The light curve of a star is a graph of the intensity or Doppler-shift of light from the star versus time.

Here the light curve of the visible companion can yield much information. The period of rotation about the center of mass can be determined by inspection of the Doppler-shifted light curve itself, and the mass of the visible star is given by the type of star and how luminous it is.

All that is then needed is a reasonable estimation of the inclination i of the system, and several important things can be calculated. A spectroscopic binary with no visible companion would be a candidate for a black hole, and if the dim star's mass is determined to be greater than that of the visible star, it would be a promising candidate.

However, this method consists of many uncertainties. If the black hole were in a gaseous nebula, the gas would fall into the black hole. The inherent magnetic fields of the gas create turbulence, generating heat, which is in turn transformed into electromagnetic radiation. The luminosity of the gas could oscillate rapidly due to the turbulence, and such rapid oscillations would give the black hole away.

Another Soviet scientist, Schwarzmann, developed the "Multichannel Analyzer of Nanosecond Pulses of Brightness Variation" in an effort to detect these oscillations, but that method also proved fruitless.

X-ray novas are a special class of X-ray binaries where the system contains a late-type optical companion a star near the end of its life and a compact object, which can be either a neutron star or a black hole. Usually the spectrum of the companion in this type of system is very weak compared to that of the gas, but in X-ray novae the fraction of light from X-ray heating is negligible, and we have an excellent opportunity to study the system in detail.

If the accretion disk is due to a black hole, then understanding the companion star in detail will also allow understanding of the processes of X-ray emission. Several X-ray satellites detected Muscae and calculations began to pinpoint an optical companion. To do this, the exact position of the X-ray source must be known. If there is a star in the visible range at that same position, it is most likely related to the X-ray star, and the light curve can then be studied in detail.

In this case, a companion was found. The similarities of Muscae with one of the best black hole candidates, V Mon, make it seem realistic that it might be a black hole. The evolution of the light curves, the decay rate in magnitude of the novae, and variations in brightness on the order of a day are all similar in the two systems.

The spectrum of the nova, its various emission lines and other spectroscopic details, also does not resemble a classical nova in the same stages, but instead resembles that of the black hole candidates Cen X-4 and V Mon. As it is not a classical nova, the distance to Muscae must be estimated from a known linear relation of the width of the NaD line to distance. Using this distance and the spectral features of the binary, the companion star seems to be a late main sequence star, which is in agreement with current theories of low-mass X-ray binaries.

What this all boils down to is that the binary X-ray nova Muscae behaves very similarly to other black hole candidates in the galaxy, and gives a picture of the nova as a burst of gravitational potential energy released as matter from the disk accreted onto the compact object.

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Research Papers words (3 pages) Black Holes Essay - Black Holes Black holes are objects so dense that not even light can escape their gravity, and since nothing can travel faster than light, nothing can escape from inside a black hole.

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This paper will provide an overview of the mystery that is the black hole and provide a discussion of some of the main features of black holes including the causes of black holes, the characteristics of black holes, and an overview of some current research and discovery relating to black holes.

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Mar 19,  · All free online research papers, research paper samples and example research papers on Black Holes topics are plagiarized and cannot be fully used in your high school, college or university education. Learn how to write the research paper about the Black Hole. How to choose the topics, what type of essay to choose and how to cope with it.

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Read this Science Research Paper and over 88, other research documents. Black Holes. Black Holes Our galaxy, as we know it, is a vast and complex dimension of our solar system. It has 5/5(1). Black Holes This Research Paper Black Holes and other 64,+ term papers, college essay examples and free essays are available now on Autor: review • November 2, • Research Paper • 2, Words (12 Pages) • 1, Views4/4(1).