FQS will continue to play a part in promoting the development of qualitative research by linking interdisciplinary and international discourse and by using different Internet tools. In so doing, it will follow the standards of the traditional print media and use their potential, while at the same time endeavoring to systematically harness the resources and advantages of the Internet.
Using traditional print media often means that quite a long time elapses before contributions can be published. In FQS , however, articles can be made available as soon as they have passed the peer-review and copy-editing process and have been adapted for the Internet. Traditional print media generally work within an exactly defined space. FQS , on the other hand, can handle space in a much more flexible way. This is also in the interests of scientific quality control.
Due to limited space and in the interests of concision, traditional media must generally dispense with a detailed description of the research process and the presentation of the empirical basis of the individual contributions.
FQS , by contrast, is able to provide access to more detailed information about the research process and even to the original data, thereby facilitating scientific quality control and offering a broader basis for further discussion. Direct interaction among authors, editors, members of the editorial board and readers: Readers can contact authors, members of the editorial staff or members of the editorial board directly via e-mail.
In its first two years, the development of FQS depended more or less on private efforts. This was not enough to maintain it on a long-term basis. That is why we decided to apply for financial support from a public funding organization for academic research.
The application was approved and two pilot projects had been funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft German Research Foundation. FQS is an open-access journal, so all full texts are accessible free of charge: Because FQS is an explorative project, it has an open forum in which the content and formal design of the journal are developed in cooperation with all of its stakeholders—readers, authors, editorial board members and editors alike.
Questions, suggestions, and all possible types of support are welcomed and appreciated, just send us an e-mail. In order to open the forum up for meaningful discussion about the development and status of qualitative methods in the individual disciplines, FQS thematic issues present traditional stances, current research methodologies, empirical emphases and disciplinary perspectives.
Previous thematic issues have focused, for example, on Cultural Sciences, Psychology, Criminology, and Sport Sciences, while other issues have been devoted to topics of interest to researchers regardless of their disciplinary and national backgrounds see back issues. They are edited by guest editors who organize the review and publishing process in close collaboration with the FQS staff.
Contributions for a thematic issue are usually submitted in response to a Call for Papers published in our Newsletter and in certain mailing lists. In addition, selected authors are invited directly to participate in a thematic issue. If you are interested in guest editing an FQS thematic issue, or if you have any suggestions for possible topics, please feel free to send us an e-mail. Every thematic issue also contains, along with the contributions which directly have to do with the respective thematic emphasis, selected individual contributions from different fields of qualitative research.
Single contributions can be submitted at any point in time. We are especially interested in. Also preferred are contributions that deal with the current status of social sciences e. For single contributions see the publication guidelines. Bryman modified and expanded this list to add that mixed methods can also be useful in obtaining diversity of views, illustrating concepts, and developing instruments.
Quantitative and qualitative research can be distinguished by the philosophical assumptions brought to the study e. Qualitative health services research, for example, is a method in which the researcher collects textual material derived from speech or observation and attempts to understand the phenomenon of interest in terms of the meanings people bring to them Denzin and Lincoln ; Shortell ; Giacomini and Cook for the Evidence-Based Medicine Working Group ; Malterud ; Bradley, Curry, and Devers There are several frameworks to guide the rigorous conduct and evaluation of mixed methods research Collins, Onwuegbuzie, and Sutton ; Curry, Nembhard, and Bradley ; Tashakkori and Teddlie ; Creswell and Plano Clark Collectively, these frameworks recommend that the conduct of mixed method studies—and reports of mixed method research, including peer-reviewed publication—demonstrates explicit rationales for all decisions regarding study design, including the purpose of including both qualitative and quantitative methods.
They specifically advise that each component qualitative or quantitative should be conducted with a level of rigor in accordance with established principles in its field, and that researchers be transparent in methodological reporting. For example, sampling design should be specified as identical, parallel, nested, or mixed Onwuegbuzie and Collins ; the level of mixing methods fully versus partially should be described, as should time orientation sequential or concurrent components of research and emphasis equal importance of methodological approaches or one more dominant Leech and Onwuegbuzie Conducting and evaluating mixed methods research have unique methodological challenges, particularly related to rigor.
Quantitative studies typically rely on quality criteria such as internal validity, generalizability, and reliability Campbell ; Campbell and Stanley ; Messick , ; Onwuegbuzie and Daniel , ; Onwuegbuzie , whereas qualitative studies have roughly comparable quality criteria of credibility, transferability, and dependability Lincoln and Guba ; Guba and Lincoln ; Miles and Huberman ; Maxwell ; Pope and Mays For example, questions asked when evaluating a qualitative study might include the following: In addition to determining whether methodological approaches unique to qualitative or quantitative research were employed, an evaluation of a mixed methods study should assess aspects unique to mixed methods, such as how multiple components are integrated and how consistency and discrepancy between findings from each method are managed Sale and Brazil ; O'Cathain, Murphy, and Nicholl Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methodologists agree that study procedures should be reported transparently, including sufficient detail to allow the reader to make inferences about study quality Lincoln and Guba ; Giacomini and Cook for the Evidence-based Medicine Working Group ; O'Cathain, Murphy, and Nicholl ; Armstrong et al.
Several researchers have proposed specific techniques to assess the overall methodology of mixed methods research and assess the methodological components of the qualitative, quantitative, and mixed portions of the studies e. For example, O'Cathain assessed quality of mixed methods research by evaluating transparency and clarity in reporting planning, design, data, interpretive rigor, inference transferability, reporting quality, synthesizability, and utility.
Others have suggested alternative methods for assessing quality, but criteria often are not elucidated or are vague. Further, those frameworks typically address quality of the study design as opposed to the characteristics provided in the published article. By contrast, Sale and Brazil proposed a structured framework for the evaluation of mixed methods publications by identifying key methodological components that should be included for both qualitative and quantitative portions of studies.
Despite these advances, we found few published accounts of the rigor of published mixed methods research. Our article has three specific research questions: This systematic review assessed the frequency of mixed methods publications in top health services research journals and compared the frequency of key methodological components in qualitative, quantitative, and mixed method studies.
We first reviewed articles in health services research journals to determine the prevalence of mixed methods designs and the presence of key methodological components.
Then, we conducted statistical analyses of trends over time in the frequency of mixed methods articles and in the presence of key methodological components of those articles. Because this was an analysis of published data, no ethical oversight was required. We examined four journals: Journals were selected by reviewing the Institute for Scientific Information rankings for the top 10 journals in health care sciences and services.
Although marked a turning point in the proliferation of mixed methods studies published in major electronic bibliographic databases such as PubMED Collins, Onwuegbuzie, and Jiao , we chose to examine articles from to because marks publication of the first edition of Tashakkori and Teddlie's landmark Handbook of Mixed Methods in Social and Behavioral Research , which provided the first comprehensive collection of mixed method theory, methodology, and application.
Five years represents a sufficient period of time to examine trends of published articles following the publication of a landmark methodological work. We reviewed empirical articles to determine whether each represented a quantitative, qualitative, or mixed methods study.
This entailed using all the information presented in the abstract and the body of the article to identify the research design either as stated or implied by the author s. We excluded nonempirical articles book reviews, literature reviews, commentaries and opinion articles, letters to the editor, policy statements and articles from a special issue of Milbank Quarterly Volume 83, Number 4 that included only articles published between and We classified articles as qualitative if they included either 1 a primary goal of exploring or understanding the meaning ascribed to a specific phenomenon or experience, or 2 qualitative data such as observations, unstructured or semi-structured interviews, or focus group interviews or methodologies such as thematic analysis.
Although more complex definitions of mixed method studies exist e. This definition reflects the general definitions of mixed methods and the lack of consensus on a specific definition across all multidisciplinary mixed methods researchers. Similar methods have been used in other evaluations of mixed methods articles Powell et al. Random samples of qualitative and quantitative articles were selected using a random number generator and did not adjust for journal or year.
We assessed the frequency of key methodological components reported across articles, then compared rates by article type. The methodological components we focused on were drawn from two conceptual frameworks. The first included Sale and Brazil's criteria: The second was O'Cathain's transparency criteria for mixed methods studies O'Cathain, Murphy, and Nicholl ; O'Cathain , which specify that mixed methods studies should state the 1 priority of methods primarily quantitative, primarily qualitative, or equal priority , 2 purpose of mixing methods e.
We assessed four additional components of mixed methods studies: We assessed components using categories of 0 not described , 1 described , or not applicable e. We identified only whether the study contained or did not contain each methodological component and did not attempt to assess quality or appropriateness of each component within the context of the study.
For example, we assessed whether the publication stated that missing data were addressed but not whether the methods to address missing data were the best methods for that particular research design. Once all articles were coded, we conducted a statistical analysis to determine whether there were trends over time in the prevalence of mixed methods articles. To assess this, we used linear regression to test the hypothesis that there would be an increase in the prevalence of the number of mixed methods articles over time.
We also conducted chi-square tests to assess differences between mixed methods, qualitative, and quantitative articles on both quantitative and qualitative criteria. We tested whether each criterion was present in the same proportion of quantitative studies as in the quantitative portion of the mixed methods studies and in the same proportion of qualitative studies as in the qualitative portion of the mixed methods studies.
In general, coders could easily categorize the type of study. For example, some papers indicated that data from interviews were included but did not provide details about who was interviewed, what was asked in the interviews, how the interview data were analyzed, or how the interview data were integrated into the overall study.
How has the frequency of mixed methods studies published in health services journals changed over time? Table 1 presents a summary of the types of articles published in four major health services research journals from through Quantitative research represented The journal containing the highest proportion of empirical studies employing a mixed methods design was Milbank Quarterly 8.
Mixed, mixed method articles; Qual, qualitative articles; Quant, quantitative articles. To detect temporal trends in the frequency of mixed methods research in the health services literature, articles were collapsed across journal and examined by publication year.
Table 2 presents the frequency of article type for each of the 5 years. All journals combined published an average of How are mixed methods articles being used to elucidate health services research? Mixed methods articles were categorized into four overlapping categories: Sixteen articles described outcomes or effects of policies or initiatives by combining administrative health record or performance data with interviews of health administrators, providers, or executives.
Examples include papers describing outcomes of pay-for-performance changes to Medicaid Felt-Lisk, Gimm, and Peterson ; Rosenthal et al. Thirteen measurement development articles employed mixed methods to create measurement tools to assess, for example, caregiver burden Cousineau et al. These studies typically examined qualitative data from individual or focus group interviews first to inform creation and testing of a survey.
Only five mixed methods articles Do mixed methods articles report qualitative and quantitative methodology differently than methodology is reported in qualitative-only or quantitative-only articles?
No article met all criteria, and no criterion was met by all articles. Of quantitative components, mixed methods studies were most likely to describe sources of data and data collection instruments Most mixed methods studies did not include control and intervention groups, which excluded related criteria.
Quantitative studies tended to contain more key methodological components, with more than 90 percent of studies defining outcome measures Quantitative studies were more likely than the quantitative portion of mixed methods studies to describe study characteristics e. Progress in Community Health Partnerships: Research, Education, and Action. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal. Journal of the History of Philosophy.
Perspectives in Biology and Medicine. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved. American Journal of Mathematics.
About this journal. Qualitative Research (QRJ) is a bimonthly peer reviewed journal that publishes original research and review articles on the methodological diversity and multi-disciplinary focus of qualitative research. The journal is edited by Bella Dicks, Karen Henwood, William Housley and Book Reviews Editor Robin Smith.
Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal The Qualitative Report (Nova Southeastern University--School of Social and Systemic Studies) [online] Qualitative Research.
A philosophical discussion of qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods research in social science Aha! “take on Me’s”: bridging the North sea with relational autoethnography. The Qualitative Report Guide to Qualitative Research Journals Curated by Ronald J. Chenail. The Qualitative Report Guide to Qualitative Research Journals is a unique resource for researchers, scholars, and students to explore the world of professional, scholarly, and academic journals publishing qualitative research.
Qualitative Research Journal (QRJ) is an international journal devoted to the communication of the theory and practice of qualitative research in the human sciences. It is interdisciplinary and eclectic, covering all methodologies that . Journal of Ethnographic & Qualitative Research (JEQR) is a quarterly, peer-reviewed periodical, publishing scholarly articles that address topics relating directly to empirical qualitative research and conceptual articles addressing topics related to qualitative. The journal has been assigned ISSN #