Native English speakers should remember that scientific English is an international language. Slang and informal writing will be harder for a non-native speaker to understand. Short, simple phrases and words are often better than long ones. Some politicians use "at this point in time" instead of "now" precisely because it takes longer to convey the same meaning. They do not care about elegance or efficient communication. On the other hand, there will be times when you need a complicated sentence because the idea is complicated.
If your primary statement requires several qualifications, each of these may need a subordinate clause: Some lengthy technical words will also be necessary in many theses, particularly in fields like biochemistry.
Do not sacrifice accuracy for the sake of brevity. An advertising copy writer would love it. The longer example would be fine in a physics thesis because English speaking physicists will not have trouble with the words. A physicist who did not know all of those words would probably be glad to remedy the lacuna either from the context or by consulting a dictionary. Sometimes it is easier to present information and arguments as a series of numbered points, rather than as one or more long and awkward paragraphs.
A list of points is usually easier to write. You should be careful not to use this presentation too much: One important stylistic choice is between the active voice and passive voice. The active voice "I measured the frequency The passive voice "The frequency was measured If you use the passive voice, be especially wary of dangling participles. For example, the sentence "After considering all of these possible materials, plutonium was selected" implicitly attributes consciousness to plutonium.
This choice is a question of taste: I prefer the active because it is clearer, more logical and makes attribution simple. The only arguments I have ever heard for avoiding the active voice in a thesis are i many theses are written in the passive voice, and ii some very polite people find the use of "I" immodest. Use the first person singular, not plural, when reporting work that you did yourself: On the other hand, retain plural verbs for "data": Just say to yourself "one datum is..
Presentation There is no need for a thesis to be a masterpiece of desk-top publishing. Your time can be more productively spent improving the content than the appearance. In many cases, a reasonably neat diagram can be drawn by hand faster than with a graphics package, and you can scan it if you want an electronic version. Either is usually satisfactory. A one bit i. While talking about the size of files, we should mention that photographs look pretty but take up a lot of memory.
There's another important difference, too. The photographer thought about the camera angle and the focus etc. The person who drew the schematic diagram thought about what components ought to be depicted and the way in which the components of the system interacted with each other.
So the numerically small information content of the line drawing may be much more useful information than that in a photograph. Another note about figures and photographs. In the digital version of your thesis, do not save ordinary photographs or other illustrations as bitmaps, because these take up a lot of memory and are therefore very slow to transfer.
Nearly all graphics packages allow you to save in compressed format as. In vector graphics as used for drawings , compression is usually unnecessary. In general, students spend too much time on diagrams — time that could have been spent on examining the arguments, making the explanations clearer, thinking more about the significance and checking for errors in the algebra.
The reason, of course, is that drawing is easier than thinking. I do not think that there is a strong correlation either way between length and quality. There is no need to leave big gaps to make the thesis thicker.
Readers will not appreciate large amounts of vague or unnecessary text. Approaching the end A deadline is very useful in some ways. You must hand in the thesis, even if you think that you need one more draft of that chapter, or someone else's comments on this section, or some other refinement.
If you do not have a deadline, or if you are thinking about postponing it, please take note of this: A thesis is a very large work. It cannot be made perfect in a finite time. There will inevitably be things in it that you could have done better. There will be inevitably be some typos. Indeed, by some law related to Murphy's, you will discover one when you first flip open the bound copy.
No matter how much you reflect and how many times you proof read it, there will be some things that could be improved. There is no point hoping that the examiners will not notice: So set yourself a deadline and stick to it. Make it as good as you can in that time, and then hand it in! In retrospect, there was an advantage in writing a thesis in the days before word processors, spelling checkers and typing programs.
Students often paid a typist to produce the final draft and could only afford to do that once. Talk to your adviser about this. As well as those for the examiners, the university libraries and yourself, you should make some distribution copies.
These copies should be sent to other researchers who are working in your field so that: This realisation could be useful if a post- doctoral position were available in their labs. Even having your name in their bookcases might be an advantage.
Whatever the University's policy on single or double-sided copies, the distribution copies could be double-sided paper, or digital, so that forests and postage accounts are not excessively depleted by the exercise.
Your adviser might also help by funding the copies and postage if they are not covered by your scholarship. A CD with your thesis will be cheaper than a paper copy. You don't have to burn them all yourself: I would never have thought of doing that as I just couldn't imagine what they would do with it. I'm very glad to have taken that advice as my parents really appreciated receiving a copy and proudly displayed it for years. My mother never finished high school and my father worked with trucks - he fixed 'em, built 'em, drove 'em, sold 'em and junked 'em.
Nevertheless, they enjoyed having a copy of my thesis. This may be bad for your physical and mental health. Typing Set up your chair and computer properly. The Health Service, professional keyboard users or perhaps even the school safety officer will be able to supply charts showing recommended relative heights, healthy postures and also exercises that you should do if you spend a lot of time at the keyboard. These last are worthwhile insurance: Try to intersperse long sessions of typing with other tasks, such as reading, drawing, calculating, thinking or doing research.
If you do not touch type, you should learn to do so for the sake of your neck as well as for productivity. There are several good software packages that teach touch typing interactively. If you use one for say 30 minutes a day for a couple of weeks, you will be able to touch type. By the time you finish the thesis, you will be able to touch type quickly and accurately and your six hour investment will have paid for itself. Be careful not to use the typing exercises as a displacement activity.
Exercise Do not give up exercise for the interim. Lack of exercise makes you feel bad, and you do not need anything else making you feel bad while writing a thesis. I find that if I do not get regular exercise, I sleep less soundly and longer.
How about walking to work and home again? Walk part of the way if your home is distant. Many people opine that a walk helps them think, or clears the head. You may find that an occasional stroll improves your productivity. Food Do not forget to eat, and make an effort to eat healthy food.
You should not lose fitness or risk illness at this critical time. Exercise is good for keeping you appetite at a healthy level. I know that you have little time for cooking, but keep a supply of fresh fruit, vegetables and bread.
It takes less time to make a sandwich than to go to the local fast food outlet, and you will feel better afterwards. Drugs Thesis writers have a long tradition of using coffee as a stimulant and alcohol and, in the old days, marijuana. Used in moderation, they do not seem to have ill effects on the quality of thesis produced. Excesses, however, are obviously counter-productive: Others Other people will be sympathetic, but do not take them for granted.
Spouses, lovers, family and friends should not be undervalued. Spend some time with them and, when you do, have a good time. Do not spend your time together complaining about your thesis: If you can find another student writing a thesis, then you may find it therapeutic to complain to each other about advisers and difficulties. Coda Keep going — you're nearly there! Most PhDs will admit that there were times when we thought about reasons for not finishing. But it would be crazy to give up at the writing stage, after years of work on the research, and it would be something to regret for a long time.
Writing a thesis is tough work. One anonymous post doctoral researcher told me: It's a tough period for almost every student. It is also an important rite of passage and the satisfaction you will feel afterwards is wonderful. On behalf of scholars everywhere, I wish you good luck! A suggested thesis structure The list of contents and chapter headings below is appropriate for some theses.
In some cases, one or two of them may be irrelevant. Results and Discussion are usually combined in several chapters of a thesis. Think about the plan of chapters and decide what is best to report your work. Then make a list, in point form, of what will go in each chapter. Try to make this rather detailed, so that you end up with a list of points that corresponds to subsections or even to the paragraphs of your thesis.
At this stage, think hard about the logic of the presentation: If you make a plan of each chapter and section before you sit down to write, the result will probably be clearer and easier to read. It will also be easier to write. In any case, this standard page gives the university library the right to publish the work, possibly by microfilm or other medium. Make sure that you consult that for its formal requirements, as well as this rather informal guide.
Declaration Check the wording required by your institution, and whether there is a standard form. Many universities require something like: Abstract Of all your thesis, this part will be the most widely published and most read because it will be published in Dissertation Abstracts International.
It is best written towards the end, but not at the very last minute because you will probably need several drafts. It should be a distillation of the thesis: An abstract must be self-contained. Usually they do not contain references. When a reference is necessary, its details should be included in the text of the abstract. Check the word limit. Acknowledgments Most thesis authors put in a page of thanks to those who have helped them in matters scientific, and also indirectly by providing such essentials as food, education, genes, money, help, advice, friendship etc.
If any of your work is collaborative, you should make it quite clear who did which sections. Table of contents The introduction starts on page 1, the earlier pages should have roman numerals. You cite the work in the references, not the researchers themselves. Every factual statement you make must have a specific citation tied to it in this chapter, or else it must be common knowledge don't rely on this too much.
Your results are to be of lasting value. Thus, the model you develop and write about and indeed, that you defend should be one that has lasting value. It should be generic in nature, and should capture all the details necessary to overlay the model on likely environments. You should discuss the problems, parameters, requirements, necessary and sufficient conditions, and other factors here.
Consider that 20 years ago ca the common platform was a Vax computer running VMS or a PDP running Unix version 6, yet well-crafted theses of the time are still valuable today.
Will your dissertation be valuable 20 years from now ca , or have you referred to technologies that will be of only historical interest?
This model is tough to construct, but is really the heart of the scientific part of your work. This is the lasting part of the contribution, and this is what someone might cite 50 years from now when we are all using MS Linux XXXXP on computers embedded in our wrists with subspace network links!
There are basically three proof techniques that I have seen used in a computing dissertation, depending on the thesis topic. The first is analytic, where one takes the model or formulae and shows, using formal manipulations, that the model is sound and complete. A second proof method is stochastic, using some form of statistical methods and measurements to show that something is true in the anticipated cases.
Using the third method, you need to show that your thesis is true by building something according to your model and showing that it behaves as you claim it will. This involves clearly showing how your implementation model matches the conditions of your abstract model, describing all the variables and why you set them as you do, accounting for confounding factors, and showing the results.
You must be careful to not expend too much effort describing how standard protocols and hardware work use citations to the literature, instead. You must clearly express the mapping of model to experiment, and the definition of parameters used and measured. This may be folded into Chapter III in some theses, or it may be multiple chapters in a thesis with many parts as in a theory-based thesis. This may be where you discuss the effects of technology change on your results. This is also a place where you may wish to point out significant results that you obtained while seeking to prove your central thesis, but which are not themselves supportive of the thesis.
Often, such additional results are published in a separate paper. Conclusions and Future work. This is where you discuss what you found from your work, incidental ideas and results that were not central to your thesis but of value nonetheless, if you did not have them in Chapter V and other results. This chapter should summarize all the important results of the dissertation note that this is the only chapter many people will ever read, so it should convey all the important results.
All other university titles B. Any person thus can adopt the Ph. Those who obtained a degree in a foreign country can only use the Dutch title drs. Dutch doctors may use the letter D behind their name instead of the uncapitalized shortcut dr.
Those who have multiple doctor dr. In Belgium 's Flemish Community the doctorandus title was only used by those who actually started their doctoral work. Doctorandus is still used as a synonym for a Ph. The licentiaat licensee title was in use for a regular graduate until the Bologna reform changed the licentiaat degree to the master's degree the Bologna reform abolished the two-year kandidaat degree and introduced a three-year academic bachelor's degree instead.
In the Russian Empire the academic degree "doctor of the sciences" doktor nauk marked the highest academic degree that can be achieved by an examination. The "doctor nauk" degree was introduced in Russia in , abolished in , and revived in the USSR in A lower degree, " candidate [doctor] of the sciences " kandidat nauk ; first introduced in the USSR on January 13, , by a decision of the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR , is, roughly, the Russian equivalent to the research doctorate in other countries.
Doctoral degrees are regulated by Royal Decree R. They are granted by the University on behalf of the King. Its Diploma has the force of a public document. All doctoral programs are research-oriented. A minimum of 4 years of study is required, divided into 2 stages:.
Since September and regulated by Royal Decree R. In the public defense the doctor is notified if the thesis has passed or not passed. The Apto Cum Laude mark is awarded after the public defense as the result of a private, anonymous vote. Votes are verified by the University. In the same Royal Decree the initial 3-year study period was replaced by a Research master's degree one or two years; Professional master's degrees do not grant direct access to Ph.
An approved project earns a master's degree that grants access to a Ph. A doctorate is required in order to teach at the University. Complutense University was the only one in Spain authorised to confer the doctorate. This law remained in effect until , when the University of Salamanca joined in commemoration of its septecentenary. In , the right was extended to all Spanish universities. All doctorate holders are reciprocally recognised as equivalent in Germany and Spain according to the "Bonn Agreement of November 14, ".
The doctorate has long existed in the UK as, originally, the second degree in divinity, law, medicine and music. But it was not until the late 19th century that the research doctorate, now known as the higher doctorate, was introduced.
The first higher doctorate was the Doctor of Science at Durham University , introduced in The PhD was adopted in the UK following a joint decision in by British universities, although it took much longer for it to become established. Oxford became the first university to institute the new degree, although naming it the DPhil.
At Cambridge, for example, PhDs wear a master's gown with scarlet facings rather than the full scarlet gown of the higher doctors, while the University of Wales gave PhDs crimson gowns rather than scarlet. Today, except for those awarded honoris causa , all doctorates granted by British universities are research doctorates, in that their main and in many cases only component is the submission of an extensive and substantial thesis or portfolio of original research, examined by an expert panel appointed by the university.
UK doctorates are categorised as: These are the most common doctorates in the UK and are normally awarded as PhDs. However, the assessment of the PhD remains based on the production of a thesis or equivalent and its defence at a viva voce oral examination, normally held in front of at least two examiners, one internal and one external. Courses normally last three years, although it is common for students to be initially registered for MPhil degrees and then formally transferred onto the PhD after a year or two.
Students who are not considered likely to complete a PhD may be offered the opportunity to complete an MPhil instead. Integrated doctorates, originally known as 'New Route PhDs', were introduced from onwards. These integrate teaching at master's level during the first one or two years of the degree, either alongside research or as a preliminary to starting research. These courses usually offer a master's-level exit degree after the taught causes are completed. While passing the taught elements is often required, examination of the final doctorate is still by thesis or equivalent alone.
Higher doctorates are awarded in recognition of a substantial body of original research undertaken over the course of many years.
Typically the candidate submits a collection of previously published, peer-refereed work, which is reviewed by a committee of internal and external academics who decide whether the candidate deserves the doctorate. The higher doctorate is similar in some respects to the habilitation in some European countries.
However, the purpose of the award is significantly different. While the habilitation formally determines whether an academic is suitably qualified to be a university professor, the higher doctorate does not qualify the holder for a position but rather recognises their contribution to research. In terms of number of higher doctorates awarded not including honorary doctorates the DSc was most popular, but the number of awards was very low: Most British universities award degrees honoris causa to recognise individuals who have made a substantial contribution to a particular field.
Usually an appropriate higher doctorate is used in these circumstances, depending on the candidate's achievements. However, some universities differentiate between honorary and substantive doctorates, using the degree of Doctor of the University D.
The structure of US doctoral programs is more formal and complex than some others. US research doctorates are awarded for successfully completing and defending independent research presented in the form of a dissertation, along with advanced study. Multiple professional degrees use the term "doctor" in their title, such as Juris Doctor and Doctor of Medicine , but these degrees do not always contain an independent research component or always require a dissertation and should not be confused with Ph.
In legal studies the Ph. Many universities offer Ph. The most common research doctorate is the Doctor of Philosophy Ph. This degree was first awarded in the U. Unlike the introduction of the professional doctorate M. The median number of years for completion of US doctoral degrees is seven. When so admitted, the student is expected to have mastered the material covered in the master's degree despite not holding one, though this tradition is under heavy criticism. While not authoritative, the International Affairs Office of the U.
Department of Education listed over 20 "frequently" awarded research doctorate titles identified by the National Science Foundation NSF in a document as representing degrees equivalent in research content to the Ph. The Doctor of Music and Doctor of Industrial Technology were removed in , after the study evaluation identified that these were fully professional, rather than research-based, doctorates.
Many fields offer professional doctorates or professional master's such as pharmacy , medicine , public health , dentistry , optometry , psychology , speech-language pathology , physical therapy , occupational therapy , health science , advanced practice registered nurse , chiropractic , naturopathic medicine , law , architecture , education , teaching , business , management , and others that require such degrees for professional practice or licensure.
Some of these degrees are also termed " first professional degrees ," since they are the first field-specific master's or doctoral degrees. A Doctor of Pharmacy is awarded as the professional degree in Pharmacy replacing a Bachelor's. It is the only professional pharmacy degree awarded in the US. Pharmacy programs vary in length between 4 years for matriculants with a B. In the twenty-first century professional doctorates appeared in other fields, such as the Doctor of Audiology in Advanced Practice Registered Nurses were expected to completely transition to the Doctor of Nursing Practice by , and physical therapists to the Doctor of Physical Therapy by Professional associations play a central role in this transformation amid criticisms on the lack of proper criteria to assure appropriate rigor.
In many cases Masters level programs were relabeled as doctoral programs. A doctoral degree can be revoked or rescinded by the university that awarded it. Possible reasons include plagiarism, criminal or unethical activities of the author, or malfunction or manipulation of academic evaluation processes.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Doctor disambiguation. Professional degree and List of doctoral degrees in the US. List of doctoral degrees awarded by country. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. April Learn how and when to remove this template message. List of doctoral degrees in the US. Archived from the original on The Higher Education Academy, p.
Perhaps the most fundamental difference between the two systems is embodied in their systems of certification; namely, in medieval Europe, the licentia docendi , or license to teach; in medieval Islam, the ijaza , or authorization. The rise of early modern science: Islam, China, and the West 2. It remains the case that no equivalent of the bachelor's degree, the licentia docendi, or higher degrees ever emerged in the medieval or early modern Islamic madrasas. Retrieved 7 October King's College organized a medical faculty in and was the first institution in the North American Colonies to confer the degree of Doctor of Medicine.
The first graduates in medicine from the College were Robert Tucker and Samuel Kissarn, who received the degree of Bachelor of Medicine in May , and that of Doctor of Medicine in May and May , respectively. Training for the Public Profession of the Law. Carnegie's Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, Bulletin UK Council for Graduate Education. Perraton 17 June A History of Foreign Students in Britain. Retrieved 18 June Lessons for Commonwealth African Law Schools. New York State Bar Association.
Archived from the original PDF on Archived from the original on 27 January Retrieved 1 October Retrieved 16 September University of Oxford Department of Economics. Retrieved 4 October Swedish National Agency for Higher Education. Finnish National Board of Education. Fulbright Commission Belgium and Luxembourg. Embassy of the United States Brussels. The degree is open to everyone including non-Belgians who has earned the B.
Congregazione per l'Educazione Cattolica. Wippel - CUA Philosophy". Gabelli School of Business. Retrieved 5 November National Center for Educational Statistics.
US Department of Education. Retrieved 1 September Retrieved 2 September The highest award a student can earn for graduate study. The doctor's degree classification includes such degrees as Doctor of Education, Doctor of Juridical Science, Doctor of Public Health, and the Doctor of Philosophy degree in any field such as agronomy, food technology, education, engineering, public administration, ophthalmology, or radiology.
Examples of this type of degree may include the following and others, as designated by the awarding institution: A doctor's degree that is conferred upon completion of a program providing the knowledge and skills for the recognition, credential, or license required for professional practice.
The degree is awarded after a period of study such that the total time to the degree, including both preprofessional and professional preparation, equals at least 6 full-time-equivalent academic years. Some doctor's degrees of this type were formerly classified as first-professional degrees. Council of Ministers of Education, Canada.
Retrieved 3 October Though considered to be bachelor's programs in academic standing, some professional programs yield degrees with other nomenclature. Australian Qualifications Framework Council. Archived from the original PDF on 13 December National Qualifications Authority of Ireland. University of Technology Sydney.
Retrieved 26 October
The term graduate thesis is sometimes used to refer to both master's theses and doctoral dissertations. The required complexity or quality of research of a thesis or dissertation can vary by country, university, or program, and the required minimum study period may thus vary significantly in duration.
The dissertation is a formal, stylized document used to argue your thesis. The thesis must be significant, original (no one has yet demonstrated it to be true), and it must extend the state of scientific knowledge.
Generally in the US, a thesis is the final project for the masters degree and a dissertation leads to a doctoral degree. Those pursuing a masters degree must perform research on a specific subject that demonstrates their knowledge acquired through their program. A thesis is a hypothesis or conjecture. A PhD dissertation is a lengthy, formal document that argues in defense of a particular thesis. (So many people use the term ``thesis'' to refer to the document that a current dictionary now includes it as the third meaning of ``thesis'').
The rise of doctoral training centres across the disciplines – with their increased focus on student employability – has prompted some of the academics running them to start to question whether the thesis is still the best means for a PhD candidate to demonstrate their . "Become Doctorate of your field " Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) is an academic degree which qualifies the professional degree holder to spread the word of the selected subject and achieve a specialized position in the university or organization.