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Style formatting is a nightmare. The default setting is to add any modified styles that exist in each document you open to your own normal template, without asking for confirmation that you wish to do so. That has wreaked havoc in at least one organisation that I worked with, where uncontrolled variations on "heading 1" and its ilk had propagated around the business like a virus. Style inheritance across section breaks is borked to the point where extra, entirely blank pages will appear in a printed document even though print preview refuses to accept their existence.

Yet some kernel of code must recognise that they exist, because it throws out all your page numbers accordingly. God knows what's going on there - Microsoft clearly don't. I had never felt contempt for a piece of software before I started using Word Sadly, the organisation I work for uses it exclusively so I'm stuck with it.

And this is why things will not improve: At home, it's a different matter. The Scrivener folks are doing an evaluation offer for Nanowrimo that lets you install a trial version which is good until the second week of December.

I've just downloaded it to see how I get on Sadly, the only publisher I know of that is planning for this is O'Reilly. In personal writing, I use both Word for running text and Storyist similar principle to Scrivener, but a better fit for me. And while you will occasionally hear major curses from this direction because some of the implementation is just lousy, I don't hate it half as much as Charlie does.

A parser is built into Cocoa, which means writing applications that will read and write. I mostly work in.

Until the point where. Then I learnt more about programming and got wiser. And yes, Word's implementation is bloaty and horrible This improves access, particularly in very large documents. Viewed from that direction, shifting users over to. And while the format is a pain, it's not impossible to roll your own. I've faked it because I could not be bothered to write the routine, but it's nowhere near as impenetrable as it sounds.

So while I dislike this particular implementation the Mac version at least can be tamed in that you can turn off the ribbon and get your own pallets and dislike the bloatware aspect, I would like to keep the general text processor model, because, on the whole, it suits me.

I wrote my heavily mathematical thesis entirely in LaTeX and vim, but lately I've been using Word for my postdoc. It turns out that even other scientists just don't seem to want to work with LaTeX. Word is awful when it comes to working with equations and most journals outright ban the latest.

And it feels just hacky to use. But you can add formatting quickly, and you aren't swamped by the associated codes I would dearly love a reveal codes option though, I used that all the time in WordPerfect as a kid.

Held here by the enticing embrace of WYSIWIG and the requirements of my superiors, but feeling hollow after the loss of easy and beautiful equations, within document referencing, excellent external references, and a vim-like interface. But even after 11 odd years, no journal I use will touch it. Off-topic, but look up "Zotero". As a very minor contributor to the project I must say that it is currently a very good citation manager.

I've pretty much fallen upon Mendeley, as that's what a lot of people around me including my boss use. However it has recently been bought by Elsevier evil! Its best use seems to be for storing and sharing papers. I did give Zotero a brief try a while back although I found it rather confusing, and it seemed more interested in importing web pages than papers , but maybe it's time for another look.

I do some editing somewhere between line- and copy-editing for a scientific journal in a field where LaTeX is the default. I work on the PDF output, but my heart always sinks when I have to deal with a manuscript created in Word, because the equations will inevitably be hideous, the bibliography will have been done by hand and be riddled with errors, and there probably won't be enough margin to contain my annotations -- and I can't use LaTeX code to show authors how they should be formatting things.

I did once write some proceedings papers in Word, and once a grant proposal, back around the turn of the century. I'm never, ever going to do that again; it was like playing Tiddlywinks with the floating figures, and the pagination tended to change when I moved to the machine attached to the printer, which is a nightmare when you're working to a strict page limit. In any case, all comes down to people using tools, not the tools themselves.

After I allowed him to install Arch Linux on his work PC windows port of emacs somehow did not suffice , his speed of writing, measured unfortunately in lines per week rather than pages per day, did not observably improve. And do not even remind me the horror of him drawing his conference poster in Scribus - an open-source analog of InDesign unable to create tables So, what kind of a business case would convince your industry to improve its tooling, and what kind of investment would this require?

Are you looking for something like http: In my second technical writing job, in , the department I joined had just recently been instructed they were to change all of their manuals into Microsoft Word to make it easier for other departments in the company to be able to read them.

I was busy trying to figure out how to get the Help files to work in the system I'd been told to use, but I remember the technical writer who'd been tasked with figuring out the conversion problem reporting back:. The manuals we produced were for a mobile phone billing system, and they were giant. Microsoft Word did not have the capacity to handle a document that big. If we had to use MS Word to do the manuals, we would have to break the manuals down into smaller chunks, we could not have a single file for a single system.

He said he had confirmed for himself that the printed manual for Microsoft Word could not have been produced on MS Word - it exceeded Microsoft's own estimate of their wordpressor's capacity.

The department went through about three years of hell before I left, attempting somehow to fit a quart into a pint pot before finally getting senior management authorisation to use something other than Word. The company went bust a couple of years after I left. Bearing in mind I'm not writing novels; mostly emails, blog posts, notes and the like It does links for when I'm writing blog posts.

Although I rarely use it, Mou gives me a TeX editor for maths formulae too. The only thing it doesn't do out of the box is tables, which is ok for what I write nearly all of the time and I have other ways to do that if I really need to - writing tables is rarely a fast, creative process for me.

But yes, I'd be happy to see the end of Word. Perhaps Microsoft will continue it's decline under the new management and then Word will finally die. It's basically the standard for eBooks after all, with a DRM layer. You can already basically set out a webpage to the nearest pixel if you really want to, DTP like.

You're encouraged NOT to, but you can. Typesetting a book isn't too hard in CSS. And at least the content is actually accessible.

Heck, embed the CSS in the head and one file The big problem with Word is that its markup is horribly non-orthogonal and in general not nestable. There's just a few basic objects: Paragraphs don't nest, they just inherit type from the previous paragraph. If you have a list, it's not implemented by having "list" containing "items" containing "paragraphs" If you have a multi-paragraph item in a list, that means the next list item is effectively starting a new list, with the numbering starting where the previous one left off.

Most of the time Word hides this mess, sorta OK, so you don't have to explicitly renumber lists all the time, but it breaks down a lot. And all the alternative word processing programs have to be able to round-trip Word documents so they religiously copy the format.

Which means that even if Word dies, its appalling design will never be discarded. I hope that not just Word but all the fixed-page-size formats die out soon. It's horrible to try and read a two-column PDF on an ebook reader.

Maybe there's a chance for someone to help kill Word by making a standard of reflowable writing. If I ran Google Docs I'd certainly start offering a choice between fixed-page and non-paged when a user starts a new document. Hello, I fully agree with your description of Word, but I am surprised by your point about publishers.

Many publishers know that word is very bad for publishing. I know that for scientific publications, latex is the rule a friend of mine does a lot of mathematic translations.

I have heard also about pdf. Word is a decently good product for the office, but not adapted at all for publishing. I feel your complaints should be addressed to your publishers. Right now they benefit from a virtuous vicious? That's not to say the cycle won't break. Google doc's is a simple free alternative that is being embraced more and more.

Schools especially are drawn to it because they can get it as part of a package with email services and collaboration tools that they can give to students at low cost to themselves. Not that Google docs is that great from a publishing stand point, but for the average home user it is fine and could lead people to stop buying Word and thus break the cycle. Of course, MS being a copycat, they've come out with Office It's a bit of a risk for them though. However, in my experience home users typically stick with one version of Office for years, and install it on all their computers whether they are allowed to or not.

They may not like the idea of a monthly fee. I still have Office because I got it cheap with an academic discount and both OpenOffice and Google Docs had been having formatting issues when I was exchanging documents with my professors using Word. You don't want to get a bad grade because your professor's version of Word doesn't play nice and they blame you. But in the end it may come down to what businesses do.

My workplace is doing a trial of Office If we adopt it, I'd probably just use that at home and on my mobile devices -- and that may be what most professionals end up doing It will export to RTF so you can send files to people still insisting on using Word, it'll allow you to drop down directly to LaTeX code but doesn't insist on it, it runs fast, and it produces beautifully-typeset output.

It'll also produce the monstrosity that is 'standard manuscript format' if you want it to, though. And it's as far from a Word clone as you can imagine.

It's Free Software and I have no connection with the people who make it. I agreee entirely with this sentiment. Nowadays, any time I want to write any kind of document, I do so in Markdown.

It's simple, easy to use, and it's plain text so I can use Vim to edit it, and it's easy to transform into just about any other format. However, I think there's a product that needs to die even more, and that's Excel. I used to be a customer service grunt for a big UK insurer, and I saw Excel used in the most unspeakable ways.

I'm now a web developer and I shudder at what people were using it for. A lot of mission-critical data that really belonged in a relational database was stored in Excel spreadsheets, and frequently got overwritten if two or more people accessed it simultaneously of course, you could limit access to a single person at a time, but then that person invariably left it open when they went to lunch so nobody could get their work done.

The only way of rolling back any changes that went wrong was by contacting the IT department to get a previous version of the file. A staggering amount of vital tasks were done with VBA macros that were an unbelievable pain to use and required a great deal of manual work by the user before they were run.

All of this was stuff that would be far better handled using MySQL and Perl or Python even bash, sed and awk will handle most of what you'd need , but these weren't permitted for security reasons. You're all a bunch of freaking wimps. I work for an eDiscovery firm. Our job is to take document collections from anyone and anything and do various technical processy things to them to enable said documents to be gone through by lawyers in human-time fast enough that the legal matter doesn't take a decade and sometimes still does.

It's a hard problem, and it's edge-cases as far as the eye can see. However, we have a competitive edge on our direct competitors in large part because we use the MS Office suite itself to render documents to the image formats so beloved by the legal industry TIFF and PDF for the most part.

This is a competitive edge because the lawyers doing document-review get presented documents that look just like the documents they collected this is especially true of Excel files, but that's another blog-post. That we get an edge by doing this and it wasn't easy is proof positive Microsoft has a hard lock on the corporate document-presentation space. If the industry had instead standardized on a file-format but gussied up the presentation layer, it would be a matter of getting the right fonts installed on the rendering system and we would be free to use a straight up rendering system and not the small rendering layer of a behemoth of workflow management we don't need grammar checkers, style sheet wizards and spell-check.

That has its own problems too. I never knew that. It explains so much about the experience of wrestling with MS Word, in particular when you're working with multiple programs or multiple users. I copied a list of names from Word into a blog post a while back, not wanting anything but the plain text. Half an hour later I gave up trying to get the HTML to look right, opened a Terminal window and copied the list of names from Word into vi, then copied it from vi to the blog post - success.

I've given up completely, and copy-typed the text into a new document, at least once before now. It also explains the slightly baffled "works for me" comments you hear occasionally - if you only ever use styles, and if you have a fully-worked-out policy on the use of styles, and if everyone sticks to it, presumably there genuinely would be no problems.

If you standardise rigidly on anything and ignore the complaints you can make it work. Incidentally, I had to think for a full minute to remember the name 'Lotus Domino', and another half a minute before I remembered 'Notes'. And I used to talk to IBM users all the time. One of these days I'll find an outliner that works as well as the shareware program PC Outliner that I used to use, and I'll be a happy man.

I've done a couple of outlines in Word, but it doesn't feel right. Again, I hadn't realised this was going on, but it's glaringly obvious - and obviously wrong - once pointed out. My own use of styles consists of a Selecting "clear formatting". Not a comment, just a war story. I edited a Windows magazine for a while, after persuading my boss that his candidate for editor would be better suited to the Technical Editor post.

Going over his copy, I noticed that he'd eschewed the usual "Q" and "A" prefixes in favour of "Q" and "R". OK, bit quirky, bit individual, leave it in". The second question and answer were also given as a pair of paragraphs beginning "Q" and "R"; the third question and answer, however, came as a pair of paragraphs beginning "S" and "T".

At this point I saw what was going on, and changed the "R" prefix to an "A". Word changed it back , right before my eyes. It happened several times before I got the changes to stick, even after I'd told it not to format the paragraphs as numbered lists.

Thinking about it now, it was the combination of defaults, importation of styles, auto-formatting and inheritance from the previous paragraph that did for me. Combined with some other bugs and "features" like pasting formatting all the bloody time , means that often the styles of parts of documents are inconsistent, and impossible to make consistent without copying them to a text editor, and then back again.

The styles system of word processors is probably my biggest complaint with them, especially as I use HTML and CSS, and can reasonably expect things to just work unless I explicitly muck around. And then we have people: Nobody knows how to use styles, instead they use bold and size Or if they do use styles, they never modify them to change the look, they'll just apply the new formatting directly to the text.

So they make something a heading, and then unbold it or whatever. And nobody is ever taught to leave the formatting until last i. And all this makes it impossible to use a word processing tool as an effective collaboration tool for anything complex. In fact, people don't even know how to use the other tools that come with the word processor. If Abiword a wasn't all buggy and shit on Ubuntu I was using it, but it's all buggy and shit on Ubuntu Wait, my complaints are not about MS Word I use it as little as possible, and that's very little , but rather about people and a little bit about LibreOffice.

There are some bugs in LibreOffice that I can trigger all on my own which I should report: I also note that many of my complaints have been made by other commentators. It's a small world. My last job involved monthly reporting to the funding agency.

We were a subcontractor, so the monthly report would involve adding contributions from me and a few cow-orkers, prettying them up, and sending them to the main contractor, who had other subcontractors' bits to integrate.

The main contractor was a one-man company, and he was picky about formatting consistency. I've never seen two installations of MS Word with all the settings similar. Once he showed me how he wanted something formatted, and it involved about six incredibly counterintuitive steps.

And sometimes it worked, sometimes it didn't, for reasons I never figured out. Chris Harris 31 mentions a point which just may bring about some real change in this area: This is perhaps the most baffling thing about the re-designed UI and "appification" of Windows 8: By hiding away the task-switching ability of the task bar Windows 7 is a really nice working environment for switching around between multiple applications and cutting back on the customisation with features like the ribbon, it seems like Microsoft is leaving a gap for high-end users.

Now, it's pretty hard to break into the desktop OS market at this point, simply because the ecosystems of the current players are so complex you could complain about deliberate non-interoperability, but actually innovation and cross-compatibility will always be somewhat opposing forces, so it was probably inevitable that we'd end up here by now.

But if the MS Office team buys into the "modern UI" but their users don't, people might start experimenting a bit more with alternative document processors etc. They suffer from terrible extensibility, and tend to be loosely defined with a large number of reserved characters and awkward or non-existent escaping mechanisms. That poster child of wikis, Wikipedia, now considers the markup that grew organically in its early versions to be an albatross that scares away new users.

Adobe develops new versions and extensions so frequently that the only reason it feels less problematic to receive a file named. More to the point, it represents an even more extreme lock-in, since the internal file format is not only proprietary and subject to compulsory upgrade, it's locked up on Google's servers.

AFAIK, the only way to take a document out of Google Docs is to export it to some other format, with no guarantee of round-trip conservation of formatting. Rather than offering something new, they exist for largely philosophical reasons: That said, LibreOffice is currently my tool of choice for documents and spreadsheets, because they do what I need them to: The ribbon was never designed for a touch-centric system notably, the touch-targets of many elements are much too small for a finger: It was designed to better expose the enormous functionality of Office to users who did not yet memorize the impossibly-large menu structure.

Microsoft increasingly had requests for new features that were already in Office, just difficult to find. The menu system certainly wasn't scaling well the old and removed "personalized menu" system was an attempt to resolve the ever-lengthening menus for common cases.

In my general experience observing users, novice users are confused about everything but more quickly adapt since searching for features is somewhat easier. Power users get the quick-access-bar to make their old giant memorized custom toolbars of old, and at any rate are expected to be able to adapt to change. Personally, I've mostly had more success with the ribbon than the old system. I deal with pharmaceutical research docs, whose lifetimes span years, multiple editors and thus multiple versions of Word.

My root problem with Word is that its file structure is so complex that its programmers haven't cleaned up the code to deal with it, and over the course of time it will fall to pieces, resulting in lost content. If you want to see something really scary, look at the XML,. A Microsoftie summed it up back when Word was released: The features that are most kewl to demo are front-and-center, and the documents are designed to be written quickly hence the auto-style nightmares and never seen again.

In military parlance, "fire and forget. Chaining down Word's egregious behaviors like creating styles on the fly is the first thing I do when I get a new computer.

The Track Changes feature is wonderful Otherwise, again, corruption spreads through the document. Now in my experience the forward versions are a lot more stable, but then you must deal with the ribbon. One of the best things that helped me deal with Word is a book by Woody Leonard, "Word '97 Annoyances" -- sadly, never updated for later versions, but most of it applies. Things like the fact that formatting is stored in the ends of things: Same with section marks -- ever see a document suddenly turn landscape?

Now you probably know why. But then newer versions of Word papered over those problems somewhat, leading to inconsistent behaviors, even if they do what you meant most of the time.

For novel writing and it would be fine for non fiction too, particularly that without extensive formulas and the like Scrivener is brilliant.

I wrote up a detailed why on my blog too that explains the fundamental differences between Scrivener and a "traditional" word processor like Word. Fullwrite was one of my favorites. One of my biggest fundamental objections with Word is that formatting is a hidden property of every character and has a tendency to bleed every which way. How often has one been working on a simple Word doc -- even an email -- where you end up mysteriously with different basic styles fonting, indentation, point size for no apparent reason?

There are multiple problems with the MS Monoculture. One of the major problems is that alternatives are fighting an extremely uphill battle. They also end up emulating the MS program to make it easier for users to switch. So, it is stiffing progress by both cutting off cash flow and by vendors implementing features in the same way. Concerning the abstract thinking style vs. Granted, it isn't amazing, but it's not nearly as skunky as others might think.

The thing I found interesting was that I used to have a pretty good Word rant myself, and even though I write more than ever, it was interesting to realize that most of my horror stories were at least ten years old. Either I'm not hanging out in the places where things crash and die, or it's getting more functional. I'm not sure which, but being the optimist that I am hah!

I happen to disagree. Even with significant Word experience, I found myself looking through drop-down menus, looking for the command I needed. With Word never used , but from what I have gleaned, the ribbon there was quite a lot worse , I find it a lot easier to find the functionality.

When they created the ribbon, they did extensive surveys of which functions were most commonly used, so these things must be important to many users.

You should publish your novels with tech publishers if that were possible. LibreOffice is my choice as an installable app and there are web-based options aplenty. I really miss a feature in my Pipeline word processor for the Z I found it a good match for what I needed to see during composition. What I currently use for writing novels is Scrivener. No, it's not open source.

Yes, it will work with Markdown if I feel like it. Or generate LaTeX output. Yes, you can point it at a directory under git or subversion control. No, there are no idiotic "wizards" and "intelligent assistants". If you're trying to work on the deep structure of an entire series of novels, with tagging and cross-referencing across books in a single project, nothing compares to Scrivener.

For writing business letters Much of what makes the MS Word experience so miserable for me is that it contains considerable complexity, but it hides so much of it behind leaky abstractions that I don't feel that I can trust. Others have mentioned OpenOffice in these comments. Like much of the popular open source software for desktop computing uses, it is bad precisely because it tries to copy the leading commercial application.

Naturally it's an imperfect copy, adding it's own cruft while copying many of the misfeatures of the original. My own hatred of MSWord comes from the way it was hacked together by programmers who do not write very much. Word is a terrible tool for writing. The market dominance is bad, yes, and it has led to the programming community being led down the path that seeks to copy badness.

But yes, Microsoft's market position is essentially forcing professional writers to use a terrible product. They also force the competition to conform to their badness. Coders outside MS don't write for a living any more than coders inside Microsoft did.

Coders generally write badly when they attempt it and they ignore the complaints of writers when they get it wrong. Instead of rebuilding the editing experience from the bottom they attack Microsoft's market by attempting to duplicate everything that's wrong with Word. This is similar to the bad rendering standards for the web, where P tags are typically separated by vertical space with ragged right rather than existing in the indented, justified flow that was converged upon over hundreds of years.

It's absolutely no surprise that Word ran better on Windows machines than WordPerfect did, since the developers of Word had access to the faster undocumented system calls, while the WordPerfect crew had to rely on the deliberately broken publicly documented system calls.

It should be noted that RTF is a proprietary format created by Microsoft, and previously developed in tandem with new versions of Word. While it is a little less tied to the implementation details than. Tools for working with it are generally using some ill-defined subset, since the full specification supports almost everything Word might want to embed. Right-justified English text is actually harder to read than ragged-right -- you lose cues about your position in long paragraphs.

It's also computationally harder to render on the web hint: On a similar note: This stuff isn't arbitrary: Funnily enough, the original programmer of Word says his brief was to "write the world's first wordprocessor with a spreadsheet user-interface" I'm sure anyone who's ever tried to get Word to do layout has had the feeling it's stubbornly arranging everything in a grid of inexplicably invisible cells.

I know the origins of RTF and I know it isn't a robust solution. It's just simple enough that the cruft and terrible choices of programmers ruin RTF editors a bit less than they ruin.

I had the same usability studies drummed into me in my techwriter days but they are all 90s-era discussions dealing with the problems of bad and low-resolution rendering. Maybe the problem was that in the 90s the corporate types didn't want to turn TeX into a usable system and the FOSS types didn't want to contaminate TeX with wizzardwigs.

So MS made a terrible piece of crap and TeX remained generally inaccessible. If you ever used Word for DOS 5. Re outliners -- have you looked in the mindmap aisle? Freemind and Xmind, for example, can be used for outlining purposes. Freemind never seems to have progressed beyond version 0. XMind is a bit more professional, and the free version is perfectly functional.

It was forbidden by Apple's license in the early days, but they've relaxed the "no interpreters" rule sufficiently that there are some very nice editors appearing; Editorial , for example.

The leader is possibly the free TeXShop for the Mac, but there are other, similar systems, many of them cross-platform, such as Texmaker. These give you previews of the PDF output of pdfTeX within the application, and synchronisation between the raw text and the preview e.

And LaTeX arguably still produces the highest standard of typesetting of any system, commercial or non-commercial. XeTeX even lets you used fonts installed into your system, rather than having to follow the arcane procedures for installing fonts into La TeX.

I agree that Word, at present, is a bloated abortion. It peaked at version 5. When the company I was working for at the time forced us all onto PC laptops and Word, I just about cried. Yes at BT when we switched to Word we had a on day accelerated course that concentrated on how to use styles - Recently I was the one that had to set up the base document for a load of site audits for Reed Elsiveer as none of my colleges knew anything about styles and outlining in word.

I have a soft for the old IBM Displaywite systems hard sectored 8 inch floppys that had a distinctive crunching sound when accessing a disk. This blog post is incredibly funny for me because a few weeks ago my copy of Microsoft Word actually committed suicide.

I bought my latest Dell computer two years ago. Unlike the previous Dell PCs I bought though, this version of worse was crippled in its functions and it had advertising. Also, something which I was to forget, It had a limited life span of two years, along with Excel and the other stuff in the crippled MS Office suite that came with my PC. So, here you are saying that Word must die, and it's actually committing suicide all over the place!

My boss has stayed a dedicated WordPerfect user from Ver. Part of my job is transferring what he's typed into formats other people can read. This combo also lets build a file structure that supports how I work, as I need to move between references and my writing fairly robustly. Perhaps once Microsoft was competently managed; but for over a decade, it's been a nightmarishly organized set of competing fiefdoms, each more concerned with fighting rival departments than any outside threat.

They're a joke, slowly sliding into obsolescence. In short, do as Hanlon commands: The takeaway message I get from this post and the smattering of comments I have read in depth is that we don't actually have good tools to do our writing, document formatting and typesetting, which are intuitive and simple to use, designed to not lead the user into stumbling error, interoperable with other tools and capable of getting out of the way, when in use.

The principal difference was that the menu key was Escape in Word and slash in MultiPlan. Back in those days, style sheets were treated by Word as independent entities -- ". The discussions of early versions of Word led me down a rabbit hole to a couple of interesting posts from MS staff.

First, this series written at the time of the Office 12 redesign the ribbon. Secondly, a slightly older post on how Word "won", and what happened to some of its direct competitors. It got slashdotted and garnered some interesting comments and some predictably inane ones http: I think the biggest problem with Word, and indeed a lot of modern software, is the "jack of all trades" model - rather than switching to a different program for Desktop Publishing, people want Word to be able to lay their text out; but they also want it to be able to perform mail merge, and citation tracking, and dozens of other things.

Jensen Harris in that blog series on Office 12 puts it like this:. Apart from file-format dominance, this is a big challenge to any would-be Word-killer: Around , I checked out a great little program for change tracking by a crowd based in or called Cambridge.

Microsoft Word soon incorporated minimal change tracking functionality what we have now , and they disappeared, AFAIK. Incidentally, a shout-out to Woody Leonhard , who wrote an absolutely great book called "Hacker's Guide to Word for Windows" , an amazing guide to the absolute mess that was WordBasic.

Yeah, you can't beat writing with a Phoneix feather dipped in unicorn blood; but, you know, failing that, you can somehow muddle through with Word if you just stop fulminating long and relax. I started writing novels before authors had personal computers in the UK at least and Word looks like a very useful tool to me.

For those wondering why users commit inexplicable crimes like not doing the formatting last, it's because different people do things in different ways. Working in IT support, my rule of thumb is to show them the "correct way" to do a particular task, and if they don't seem to pick it up, to work out a way to accommodate their quirks. Of course, for those much further up the pay scale, it's usually best to just go straight to accommodating their oddities.

I've been using Google Docs a lot recently. It does the basic task I need quite well, and the collaboration tools are very good. It seems to be able to output pretty clean HTML as well apart from the way it deliberately limits the text to the original page width, but that's just one short tag to edit out. Word clones with a complete lack of That Bloody Paperclip and a UI that's stayed more or less consistent between 1. That's somewhat more charitable than I would've been.

All other IFP courses: Minimum grade is D-. Students should understand that all coursework, including those courses for which the NC grade policy has been applied, counts in the calculation of excess hours. Students might eventually incur additional fees in the pursuit of their degree. Therefore, they will need to chart their plan of study in consultation with an academic advisor. When undergraduates choose this option, they participate in the course the same way as students enrolled for a letter grade.

At that time, students who would receive a passing letter grade receive a "P" instead; a "P" grade will be awarded credit but will not be counted in calculating the grade point average. Students who do not achieve passing work receive a grade of "F," which represents failing work and will be counted when calculating the grade point average.

This option is available only to undergraduate students and requires the approval of the college of the student's major; it is not available for courses in the student's major or to students on probation. Such changes will not be considered beyond the third week of classes unless students have not taken a test in the class, not had an assignment graded or not had any other assessment of class work. The only exception to this policy is if the student has transferred to another institution or program that requires a letter grade.

In such courses, the grade of "S" indicates passing work and will be awarded credit for the course, but the course will not be included in the grade point average. The grade of "U" indicates failing work. The "U" is not awarded credit and is not included in the grade point average. University Forgiveness Policy Repeated Courses The University Forgiveness Policy permits an undergraduate student to repeat an FAU course and allows only the higher grade to count in the grade point average.

The policy does not remove the previous grade but eliminates the effect of that grade on the student's GPA by removing it from the computation. The Forgiveness Policy does not apply to non-degree or transient students. However, students can use forgiveness for classes taken as non-degree if they are degree seeking at the time of the repeat.

Undergraduates are permitted to apply the Forgiveness Policy at any time prior to graduation. Forgiveness Policy Request forms are available here or in the Office of the Registrar and should be submitted after the course has been repeated.

In the event that a student chooses to repeat a course that is no longer offered by the University, it is the prerogative of the academic unit that offered the original course to either deny the student's request or to designate an appropriate, related substitute course.

All freshmen wishing to use the Forgiveness Policy must obtain the approval of an advisor. The following conditions apply to the use of the Forgiveness Policy: Students may request forgiveness up to three times during their undergraduate study at the University.

No more than two forgiveness requests may be at the and levels. The repeated course must be taken at FAU. Grades awarded due to academic irregularities cannot be removed from the GPA calculation under the Forgiveness Policy.

For transferred courses, grade forgiveness by the prior institution will be honored by Florida Atlantic University. Students should understand that all coursework, including those courses for which the Forgiveness Policy has been applied, counts in the calculation of excess hours.

Students might eventually incur additional fees in the pursuit of their degree, so they will need to chart their plan of study in consultation with an academic advisor. An undergraduate-level course is numbered at the , , or level. All courses that are fee-liable will be counted as a registration. The amount of the charge will be determined each term, but is expected to represent the full cost of instruction.

Exceptions to the Repeat Course Surcharge are individualized study, courses that are repeated as a requirement of a major and courses that continue over multiple semesters. Courses repeated more than two times to increase the grade point average or meet minimum course grade requirements will be eligible for the surcharge.

According to the statute, a student may be granted an exception to the Repeat Course Surcharge upon approval by provost based upon a review of the individual circumstances presented by the student to document exceptional circumstance. Review will be initiated by student petition, which must provide all appropriate documentation to support the claim of exceptional circumstance. A student may appeal only once per course.

Petition forms are available for this purpose and can be obtained here or from the Office of the Registrar. Grade Point Average GPA Computation Except as provided by the University Forgiveness Policy, an undergraduate student's grade point average is computed by dividing the sum of all grade points earned at FAU by the total number of credits in all courses for which the grades of "A" through "F" have been received.

The grades of "A" through "C," and "S," are passing grades. A student who registers for a course but fails to meet the course requirements, without officially dropping the course, will receive a grade of "F" in the course.

In extraordinary circumstances, the faculty may record "NR," which will appear on the transcript as "NR" until the situation is resolved. Additional Policies for Undergraduate Students.

Undergraduate Student Classification Undergraduate student classification is determined by the number of credits completed at all institutions as follows: Freshmen and sophomores are lower-division students, whereas juniors and seniors are upper-division students. Students who have not received a baccalaureate degree and students who are seeking a second baccalaureate degree are undergraduates. Acceleration Mechanisms Several accelerated programs are available to undergraduates.

To learn about these, refer to Acceleration Mechanisms for Undergraduate Students, appearing later in this section. A student who has been continuously enrolled at FAU may be awarded a degree by satisfying the degree requirements defined in any catalog in effect during the period of continuous enrollment leading up to graduation. Students must follow a single catalog, not a combination of catalogs, to meet graduation requirements.

Catalog year academic program requirements are set each fall semester. For students who earned an A. Such students may use the FAU catalog in effect at the time they began their most recent period of continuous enrollment at any of the Florida public institutions.

Deadline for Declaring a Major Students entering FAU with a clear choice of major should declare a major or pre-major early and devise a plan of study to ensure a timely graduation.

Declaring a major early provides students with a sense of direction, strengthens their motivation and helps to inform their course choices. Students entering without a clear choice of major should begin exploring major choices and career options associated with the majors very early in their first year. New freshmen and transfer students without an A.

These students must declare a major or pre-major upon the anticipated earning of 45 credits earned credit hours plus any credits for which the students are currently registered.

New transfer students with an A. Students with a pre-major must declare a major upon earning 60 credits. Students seeking to change their major should consult the Change of Major information below.

Change of Major Undergraduate students contemplating a change of major must meet with an academic advisor and carefully devise a plan of study to ensure a timely graduation. Please refer to the Timely Graduation Policy for credit requirement thresholds to change a major.

Changing the major requires permission of the new department and satisfaction of the same academic qualifications as for new applicants for admission to that department.

To change the major, an undergraduate must satisfy the prerequisite coursework required for the new major. Other restrictions may apply for admission to certain programs. Undergraduates who change their major are subject to the requirements of the new major in effect at the time of the change and may be subject to the Excess Hours Surcharge see below.

Changing the major to a department in a different college requires the Application for Undergraduate Change of College form, which is available in the Registrar's Office and in most college offices. The form needed to change the major to a department in the same college is available in the college office. Double Majors Undergraduate students may pursue two majors. If the two majors are in different degrees, such as a B. A double major does not require a minimum number of hours beyond those necessary for completing degree requirements or more hours.

To graduate with double majors, students must first declare the primary college and major of their choice on the application for admission. Then, undergraduates must inform the second college and department of their intent by completing a Second Major form, available in the Office of the Registrar. Undergraduates must consult with both departments to ensure that all courses needed for graduation are completed.

The same catalog year must be used for both majors. A minimum of 21 credits must be applied exclusively toward requirements in the primary major.

Students may not pursue a double major in the same academic program, such as a B. To ensure a timely graduation, students may pursue a double major only if the requirements can be completed without extending the anticipated graduation date.

Please refer to the Timely Graduation Policy for credit requirement thresholds to declare a second major. Students wishing to pursue a second major and receive two different degrees should refer to the requirements for a Second Baccalaureate Degree, appearing in the Degree Requirements section of this catalog.

Excess Hours Surcharge Florida Statute For students enrolling in a state university or a Florida State College System institution for the first time in or after the fall semester, a tuition rate surcharge will be applied for excess hours.

The surcharge is assessed only on the tuition portion of the semester hour cost, not on the fees. Fall semester to summer semester For a degree program of required hours this means any credits above will be subject to the surcharge.

Fall semester and beyond: For a degree program of required hours, this means any credits above will be subject to the surcharge. In determining excess hours the following will be included when calculating the number of hours taken by a student: The law does allow for exceptions to the excess hour surcharge. For example, the courses taken under the following circumstances would not count as excess hours: All students should make every effort to enroll in and complete only those courses that are required for their degree program.

Repeating courses, changing majors and adding minors that are not required as part of a major may result in excess hours. Students should regularly review their degree audit and consult with an academic advisor to ensure that they are not enrolling in excess hours.

To see more information about the bullet points above, click here for the Excess Hours Surcharge Frequently Asked Questions. University Advising Services, in the case of students with 45 or fewer completed credit hours; the college advising office, for those students with greater than 45 completed credit hours; or the Honors College Academic Support Services office, for students at the Harriet L.

To receive permission, the student must explain the reasons for the poor academic performance in past attempts and include a plan for success in the course on the next attempt. Those students who are requesting permission to enroll in the same mathematics course for the third time or any subsequent attempt may be required to first enroll in and successfully complete a math boot camp.

Satisfactory Academic Record To graduate from Florida Atlantic University, an undergraduate must achieve a satisfactory academic record. A satisfactory academic record is defined as an average of "C" or better on all work attempted 2.

Certain majors may require higher standards. Academic Probation Undergraduate students who fail to earn a satisfactory grade point average 2. Students on academic probation who fail to earn a 2. Students on academic probation who earn a 2. Undergraduates on academic probation should seek assistance from their academic advisors in improving their academic performance. Academic probation is removed when an undergraduate student earns at least a 2.

Suspension and Dismissal An undergraduate student on academic probation who fails to earn a 2. If at any time after having once been suspended, an undergraduate student fails to earn a 2. Academic Actions for Freshmen First-semester freshmen who fail to earn a 2.

The coursework taken must be chosen in consultation with an academic advisor. Those students who received a grade of "C-" or below, a Withdrawal W or an NC grade in their last mathematics course may be required, as well, to first enroll in and successfully complete a math boot camp. Those freshmen on academic suspension at the end of the spring semester will have the suspension deferred to enable them to take summer courses.

Suspension will be removed or applied at the end of the summer term based on the new GPA. Students who fail to enroll in a minimum of 6 credits of summer coursework at FAU will not be allowed to enroll in fall coursework. Returning After Suspension A suspended student is eligible to re-enroll after a minimum of one semester and will return on academic probation due to previous suspension.

All students returning from suspension are required to meet with an academic advisor, at which time the terms of re-enrollment will be specified.

Students with 60 or more earned credits will meet with an academic advisor in their college. If a student is seeking admission to a college different from the original college, the petition process will include notifying the new college regarding the student's intent. If at any time after having once been dismissed, an undergraduate student has a term and cumulative average below 2.

Deferred Probation, Suspension and Dismissal If an undergraduate student takes a single course or a single course and linked laboratory in the summer and earns a semester GPA of less than a 2. In the event of deferred action, the student's academic status will remain the same as at the end of the semester preceding the summer term. Dean's List The University recognizes superior academic performance at the end of each semester by the publication of a Dean's List for each college of the University.

To be included in this list, an undergraduate student must complete a full-time load at least 12 credits with a grade point average of 3. The selection of Dean's List students is based on grades reported on the official grade reporting date for each semester.

No changes are made to the list as a result of grade changes and removal of "I" grades. President's List In recognition of superior academic achievement, the President's List is published at the end of each semester of the academic year. This list includes the names of all undergraduate students who have completed 12 or more credits and who have attained a grade point average of 4. The selection of President's List students is based on grades reported on the official grade reporting date for each semester.

Baccalaureate Degrees of Distinction FAU recognizes superior academic performance by granting baccalaureate degrees of distinction to undergraduates who have earned at least 45 credits at FAU as follows:. An undergraduate transfer student may qualify for a degree of distinction based on all work taken at the upper division other institutions and FAU , a minimum of 45 credits, if the student has not completed 45 credits at FAU.

An undergraduate earning a second baccalaureate may qualify for a degree of distinction based on all work completed at FAU, a minimum of 30 credits.

All undergraduates receiving degrees of distinction must be recommended for that distinction by the faculty granting that degree. Timely Graduation for Undergraduate Students Florida Atlantic University is committed to ensuring that students admitted as undergraduates will make progress toward their degree and graduate in a timely manner.

The University will make every effort to employ the advising and academic support personnel necessary to ensure student success. Students also must take responsibility for timely graduation. They must learn their degree requirements as listed in this University Catalog.

T hey must review their degree audit DARS as least once every semester. They must meet with an academic advisor and review progress toward their degree at least once every semester. The following rules apply: To graduate within the timeframes specified above, students must successfully complete an average course load of 15 credits every semester. Students should enroll in summer courses so as to lighten their load in semesters when taking particularly difficult courses and to ensure progress toward their degree.

Students in degree programs requiring more than credits should take summer coursework in order to graduate in four years. All students entering FAU with fewer than 60 credits are required to earn a minimum of 9 credits in the summer.

Students unable to graduate within the expected graduation timeframes and unable to take a full-time course load in any given semester must secure the approval of an academic advisor and establish a plan of study. These steps will ensure their continuing progression toward a degree. Students who wish to enroll part-time in their first semester fall or spring must change their status to non-degree seeking NDS. All students who have completed credits or more must only enroll in classes required for graduation.

Exceptions are allowed with academic advisor approval only for those students needing to maintain a full-time course load due to financial aid or other requirements. Upon completing all requirements for their degree, students will graduate and have the opportunity to participate in commencement exercises.

Those wishing to take additional courses after meeting degree requirements should consider a second baccalaureate degree, a graduate degree or coursework taken as a non-degree-seeking student. All students must understand that credits earned in excess of those hours required for the degree may be subject to excess hours surcharges mandated by the State of Florida. Students will need to carefully consider the ramifications of their course selection in consultation with an academic advisor. The addition of a minor or additional courses to their academic portfolio may sound appealing, but it also might result in considerable additional expense and a delay in degree completion.

A change of major, too, may have the same results. Students who have completed all requirements for their first major by the deadlines stipulated above must graduate, regardless of missing requirements for a minor, second major or certificate program.

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Visionary, Leader, Role model for a people Young Lee meticulously and skillfully presents the miraculous change of the South Korean economy and more; the change of a culture under the leadership of Park Chung-hee. Economic growth ushered in higher education, and despite the view of many of him as dictator, his leadership was the fuel for eventual democratic representation in government. Park Chung-hee was one of those few rare individuals, a leader of the people, able to usher in Lee witnessed much of this first-hand and gives a deeper, personal insight into the miracle that is Very informative information about the life of President Park Chung-hee.

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