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However, the new millennium witnessed an expansion of both the definition of civil rights and those calling for their enactment. In the recent media spotlight on officials issuing marriage licenses to same-sex couples and in the massive demonstrations protesting immigration policies that restrict immigration, it is clear that civil rights remain a pressing social problem for those marginalized and excluded from rights and protections extended to others.

Given the counterprotests to both these campaigns, it is also clear that civil rights concerns continue to produce conflict over what is meant by citizenship rights and who shall have access to them. Cemented into the founding documents of U. Yet, as many scholars and activists note, social practices that work to reproduce structural inequality contradict this ideology.

Because of this, much of the struggle to expand civil rights rests on the notion that U. Areas of concern include the right to citizenship, the right to vote, the right to own property, and rights to protection from employment and educational discrimination as well as harassment and violence based on group membership.

Chicanos and Asians fared little better, as they too received no protection from segregated schools and relegation to the most exploited forms of labor, while experiencing violent repression and social exclusion. In a period that had the potential for radical change in modes of political and economic distribution, the government instead opted for containment. It moved swiftly to relocate and relegate native peoples to reservations and to exclude wave after wave of Asian immigrants from settlement.

It was not until massive social protest in the 20th century that civil rights became actualized for many. The Supreme Court decision in Brown v.

Ferguson, which legalized segregation. In the decades following Plessy, W. Social life was characterized by division of the races into segregated and unequal schools, neighborhoods, churches, clubs, recreational facilities, and jobs. Whites alone enjoyed privileged access to political representation and the means for simple wealth accumulation through home ownership. The Brown decision represented a challenge to this privilege system. As activists responded, despite the widespread effects of race-based oppression, it was African Americans who were the mainstay of the multiracial civil rights movement.

Dramatic confrontations with Jim Crow legislation reveal the courage of activists such as Rosa Parks. Her refusal to cede her bus seat to a white man led to the Montgomery bus boycott, which delivered a significant victory in the battle for desegregation at the start of the civil rights movement. A young Martin Luther King, Jr. However, it was the everyday citizens who risked their lives whose heroism should be realized for its contribution to social change. They braved bombings, beatings, police dogs, fire hoses, and jails, laying their lives on the line for justice.

They established a base of support in black churches and drew media attention as they successfully framed the civil rights movement as a moral crusade and recruited a wide base of supporters that included many students.

The civil rights movement of the midth century culminated in passage of a broad civil rights act that assured the right to vote and outlawed discrimination in public areas, education, employment, and all federally funded programs.

Eventually, protection against discrimination extended to social group membership by race, color, national origin, religion, sex, and age, later expanding to include disability. Related legislation removed the long-standing white preference in immigration quotas, required equal pay for equal work, and established oversight agencies. A host of disenfranchised groups adapted tactics and ideological frames of the civil rights movement as they struggled for equitable treatment and social justice.

Women, politicized by their experience in the civil rights movement, organized as feminists to force attention on gender and sex in society. A gay rights movement, accompanied this examination of gender and sex in society. These efforts by activists to extend the agenda initiated by the civil rights movement paralleled the expansion of the scholarly discourse and research on civil rights.

Sharp divisions mark the discourse on civil rights. Scholars debate over how to define the correlation between stratification and differential access to civil rights protections. They interpret outcomes of civil rights legislation differently, leading to contemporary arguments over whose access to civil rights shall be guaranteed and what rights the state shall be bound to protect.

Moreover, scholars debate whether a successful conclusion to the campaign for civil rights, their extension and enforcement, can bring about social justice and equality. Their prediction of a harmonious outcome to conflicts that accompanied social marginalization based on group membership rested on assumptions that once ethnic minorities adopted the cultural patterns of the dominant group, they would find acceptance throughout society.

They saw the denial of full participation in society as the result of irrational prejudices that produced discriminatory treatment and social marginalization, as well as periodic violent confrontations.

For such scholars, passage of the Civil Rights Act resolved inequality based on racial prejudice. Inequality could be legislated away by outlawing discrimination. Any vestiges of inequality were the outcome of individual capabilities, motivation, and training. Where patterns of social inequality persisted, they could be interpreted as arising from cultural differences—not exclusionary practices.

Their central premise is that women should advance in what they view as a meritocratic society without being hampered by discrimination. Up until this point the Northern population saw the movement as an issue of unfair treatment, this was the wake up call that shocked them into caring and understanding that this movement was truly a matter of the preservation of lives.

The other role this case played was the attention a black journalist named Simeon Booker got. It was the first time that the White press had taken an interest in a case like this in the movement. This was the point where leaders in the movement were able to grab ahold of the power of the non-Black press and set in motion a relationship with the media that would be crucial to the success of the movement.

It can be said that the modern Civil Rights Movement was birthed out of and functioned within the realm of the Black church; because this is true it only makes sense that the gender roles that shaped the Black church were the same that shaped the movement. The woman was essentially seen and not so much heard unless it was the wish of the men in the movement.

The church also subscribed to the concept of charismatic leadership, which picked a figurehead as the face of the movement while grassroots led the movement. Just like male ministers head a church and the women of the church do all of the work that comes with running the church and preparing for service each Sunday, the women of the movement ensured order, made flyers, and created chains of information. Martin Luther King Jr, who was the figurehead for the Civil Rights Movement and consisted of male ministers, founded it.

These men traveled together and would preach about peace and equality but it was women who were necessary in organizing the groundwork. Even more apparent was the direct link between religion and the leaders of the movement. The men whom we know as the primary faces or figureheads of the movement were both, first and foremost, religious leaders. Martin Luther King Jr.

The fact that most of the civil rights movement leader were also church leaders shows how much church and this movement go together. The two most prominent forms of leadership in the Civil Rights Movement and Black Power are charismatic leadership and grassroots leadership.

In order for a movement to be successful there was to be figurehead. What this figurehead is just the face of the movement, for example Martin Luther king Jr was one of the figure heads chosen for this movement. When most people think of the Civil Rights Movement he is what comes to mind. The two most prominent forms of leadership in the course of the Civil Rights Movement and Black Power are charismatic leadership and grassroots leadership.

Charismatic leadership is the more recognizable form of leadership in the movement this type of structure is modeled after the black church. It elects a figurehead with a charismatic disposition to essentially work as the face of the movement, such as Martin Luther King or Malcolm X. Representation of ideas and thoughts are relayed directly from those who conceived them, not from a figurehead. This form of leadership was more popular in student groups such as the SNCC and was advocated by leaders such as Ella Baker.

While these two forms of leadership are identified separately, they do in fact need each other. A figurehead leader is a good buffer to allow grassroots work continues without disruption while the public and press focus their attention on the leader. Grassroots is fueled by its workers and a charismatic leader can draw in more manpower and ideas when people are attracted to a figureheads charisma.

Most importantly though, charismatic leaders would have nothing to relay and put in action if not for the work of grassroots, creating campaigns, ideas, and strategies. During this movement however, women are clearly overlooked. Women were everywhere in this movement.

It was a moment in history where the oppressed took an organized stand against the oppressors in turn while doing this they were able to find their voice along the way; yet a movement that was so dedicated to a reformation of roles had one fatal flaw.

This movement, so focused on progression, was based on an oppressive system of patriarchal leadership, one designed to muffle the voice of the women until the men decided it could serve a purpose. This age old, oppressive hierarchy, birthed out of the Black church, did to Black women what White America was doing to the whole of the Black population, yet this movement would not have gown and been so successful without the women to organize and spread the word.

In this case the oppressed group became the oppressor. The female role in the Civil Rights Movement was strictly to organize, execute, and appear.

Even though women pretty much running the movement in the backround what really demonstrates that women were in the oppressive role is the fact that an organization that was called a political council was held responsible for cutting stencils and making copies which is tedious mundane work. This was simply one of the many female groups formed in an effort to support the movement by organizing the grassroots work. Due to this fact the women of the movement were relegated to organizational work, the young women were kept in the dark about any other potential role they could play in the movement past making flyers and creating information chains.

It was because of this that young girls like, Melba Patillo Beals, were unaware of their full potential in this movement. In her interview in Voices of Freedom Beals discusses the driving factor behind her decision to put her name on the list to attend Central High. Nowhere in her oral interview does Beals mention a desire to make history, stand out or be an influential figurehead; her driving force was curiosity. When the Brown v. Board of Education decision was delivered, the adults acknowledged the decision but had no discussion of its ramifications with her, she was kept out of the conversation about her own future.

Its primary formation was a means of self-defense, purposed for the education of the Black masses. Although it is likened to the Nation of Islam, the BPP was markedly more aggressive in practice however, violence aside, the organization aimed to provide a safe space for black people to exist, launching food and education programs in the Black community. The SNCC advocated for direct action and exercised more confrontational forms of action rather than passive acts such as boycotting.

They were integral in the launch of the student leadership movement, lunch counter sit-ins, and freedom rides.

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The Civil Rights Movement had far-reaching effects on American life and history. The essay topics in this lesson will help your students.

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The Civil Rights Movement is a continuous movement pursuing for the equal rights of various minorities in the world. In the United States, it became more prominent in advancing the rights of the African American citizens. "Freedom and Civil Rights" Essay Questions The following unit is from a high school US History class. The class consists of all Sophomore students coming from a variety of .

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Teacher's Edition for Civil Rights Movement: Desegregation with Discussion & Essay Questions designed by master teachers and experts who have taught Civil Rights Movement: Desegregation. He later signed the Civil Rights Act of as a political gesture, but only after assuring southern legislators that the act would have no significant impact. Whereas Eisenhower privately opposed the movement, Kennedy privately supported it and met frequently with civil rights leaders in the SCLC, NAACP, and CORE.