Common knowledge does not need to be referenced, and you can assume that any reader is fairly knowledgeable about the field. For example, a psychologist will be aware of pavlovian conditioning , so you do not need to reference that if it from your own head. A biochemist will be aware of how ethanol is made. There are a number of ways in which you can reference the source, but most are based upon variations of MLA and APA style. Check with your supervisor which exact technique you should be using, and be consistent.
If you use one style all of the way through, there should be no problem, but mixing the styles makes things unclear to the reader and may well be punished by your supervisor. For this style, after every paraphrase, you include the surname of the author and the date of writing. Sargeant, at the end of the sentence. This will allow any readers to find your work in the reference list and check the original source for themselves. There are a few variations, especially with electronic information, but they all follow the same basic structure.
If the author has written more than one paper in the same year, then you can use an alphabetical appendix:. Some departments prefer it if you also use page numbers, if possible. The other difficulty is when there is no author mentioned, and the source was written by an organization. In this case, you use the name of the organization or a recognized abbreviation.
The exact abbreviation does not matter too much, as long as it is clear in the bibliography. The same is true of many electronic sources, although be careful that any non-attributed source is reliable. For multiple authors, it is usual to mention them all the first time, but to use 'et al. If there are six or more authors, you can use the abbreviation straightaway. Occasionally, you may have to use a source that has been referenced in another source. If you can, try to find the original source and use that.
If there are more than three, you are allowed to put the first name listed in your bibliography plus "et al. Antonin Korenek has been writing professionally since Korenek graduated from Wayne State University with a bachelor's degree in English.
Use our citation tool to automatically generate your bibliography for any website. How to Put Citations in a Research Paper. Accessed 14 September Depending on which text editor you're pasting into, you might have to add the italics to the site name. Tips Depending on the subject of your paper, you will need to adhere to specific format guidelines.
In some instances, a university will have guidelines specific to their school. Always check with your professor or teacher to ensure you use the proper formatting guidelines. References Purdue Online Writing Lab: Throughout the body of your paper primarily the Intro and Discussion , whenever you refer to outside sources of information, you must cite the sources from which you drew information. The simplest way to do this is to parenthetically give the author's last name and the year of publication, e.
Provide a reference to the work as soon as possible after giving the information. There are exceptions among the various journals, but generally, in biological journals, the most frequent types of citations are shown in the following examples in red: Click and Clack demonstrated that mice treated with synthetic estrogen analogs react similarly. The reduction in phase three courtship behavior may also be linked to nutritional status Anon. Theses and dissertatons should be cited as follows: A study of hormonal regulation of body temperature and consequences for reproductive success in the common house mouse Mus musculus in Nome, Alaska.
Masters Thesis, University of Alaska, Anchorage. WWW citation should be done with caution since so much is posted without peer review. When necessary, report the complete URL in the text including the site author's name: Ohio State University Library has a good webpage for citing web sources: Internet sources should be included in your Literature Cited section. For information on evaluating internet sources, look at: For unusual reference citations such a government documents, technical reports, etc, refer to Huth et al for a complete listing of citation formats.
A copy of this reference should be available in the Ladd Library and a copy is available in the Biology Department. Suppose some of the information cited above was not gained from the Gumwad and Bugjuice publications, but rather in a personal conversation with or letter from an expert on the subject, Dr. When you have talked with, or written to someone, and gained some information or data that are not published, you should give credit to that person in the following way: In the Literature Cited you must provide complete citations for each of the published sources cited in your paper.
The format for entries in the Literature Cited section differs for books and for journal papers because different kinds of information must be provided.
The formats provided here are typical, but may vary in different publications depending on their particular needs and practices.
Some basic rules applicable to all formats indexed by author name s: The role of estrogen in mouse xxxx courtship behavior changes as mice age. J Physiol 62 6: Mouse xxxx Mus musculus as a dietary alternative for humans. J Nutrition 33 6:
Citing References in the Body (Intro and Discussion) of the Paper. Throughout the body of your paper (primarily the Intro and Discussion), whenever you refer to outside sources of information, you must cite the sources from which you drew information.
Mla Style in Text Citations. The MLA style in text citation has two variations, the author/page number, although the modern trend is for author/year/page number, such .
Citing an Author or Authors A Work by Two Authors: Name both authors in the signal phrase or in the parentheses each time you cite the work. Use the word "and" between the authors' names within the text and use the ampersand in the parentheses. Use bibliography software to help keep track of and cite sources. Several such programs are available, and can save a lot of time and energy. Consider taking a class on writing a research paper.
Writing a paper, especially a research paper, requires you to cite your source for any information or thoughts that are not your own. If you do not, you risk being accused of plagiarism. It is easy to cite your source in-text and there are many ways to do it. MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook (8 th ed.), offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the Works Cited page.