Skip Nav

The Media, Religion and the 2012 Campaign for President

11 thoughts on “Internet vs. TV vs. Radio vs. Newspaper”

❶Conversely, they found that the second pages of search sites required more cognitive effort as indicated by a reduction in saccades.

Search form

Never miss out
Practitioner’s Take Away

When something occurs, reporters are their right away to film for the television what occurred. That quality is what most people find admirable about the television. With television you get news right away the moment something happens.

For example, if there was a tornado the news will let everyone know right away, but with a newspaper it will take much longer.

If you ask anyone what they prefer, television or newspaper most would prefer television. Especially in this generation, technology is a major thing.

Television is a much faster way to obtain information, but one con is if the power goes out then you have no way to obtain information on the television: Everyone has their own opinion on newspapers and television. Some people like reading the newspaper to get their information, and some people like watching the news. Before there was such thing as the television, people use to obtain their information from a newspaper, but now since this generation is about technology, people depend on the television to obtain their information.

On the discussion of slavery, majority of the members thought a solution for the slaves to move back to west Africa would be ideal. However, Garrison had advocated for the urgent end to slavery and to encourage rights and freedom for all slaves I looked at a range of tabloids and broadsheets.

I wanted to find out what, exactly, was really inside an English newspaper. To do this accurately, I needed a mathematical formula to work out percentages of different categories within the paper.

Considering that both newspapers were printed on the same day I would expect them to be similar and cover the same news titles. The reason for the difference in style and content is because both newspapers must satisfy a particular audience My first piece of original writing is a newspaper article which is intended for a broadsheet paper like The Times or The Guardian.

For my article I decided to write about rape. In regions B, C, and D, the TV homepages presented a logo and global navigation across the top of the page.

Positioned to the far-left or middle-left of the page, the homepages featured a dominant photograph that related to the major news story. In close proximity to the photograph, to its immediate right or left and below it, were listings of links. The sites concentrated these elements in regions B, C, and D. The layouts of newspaper homepages, to some extent, mirror a newspaper. They presented headlines with summaries and bylines throughout the homepage, which engendered a dispersed visual scan, as depicted in the eye trace figures.

The observation that participants fixated in region E more often on newspaper homepages was likely influenced by several factors. First, on homepages, visual attention may be especially drawn to listings of text links news or top stories because users seek an efficient means to review and access available stories.

Finally, the Post Gazette presented a listing of links top stories in a scroll box at the top-center of the page and a dominant image directly below the list. To the right of the image and also below the links, headlines with summaries ran down the page into region E. As participants scrolled down, they encountered additional listings of text links located in this same region.

Interestingly, of all the sites, the Post Gazette had the fewest number of fixations in regions A and B. Possibly, fewer participants attended to these regions because the Post Gazette presented top story links in a scroll box rather than listing them in a more conventional manner as was done on TV homepages. TV sites, on the other hand, grouped news story links in one general area.

It seems plausible that the observed differences with respect to fixation area are mainly influenced by a visual attention being attracted to areas with concentration of news story text links in the document body the TV homepages presented those areas in the upper regions of the page ; b newsprint homepages used headlines as primary navigation links, which were spread over the page; and c with the possible exception of USA Today, the placement of link groupings on newspaper sites varied from site to site more so than on TV homepages.

For instance, The New York Times presented news story links in the lower-middle portion of the page, whereas the Post Gazette presented them in the upper-middle. If number of fixations is considered in conjunction with highly fixated areas, it suggests that TV homepages had central areas of importance and a free-form search was more efficient compared to newsprint pages.

However, when viewing newsprint pages, participants had slightly more fixations but visual traces were less concentrated, which intimates that, unlike TV homepages, there was no central area of importance and a free-form information search was less efficient.

Additionally, it provides an indication of whether the eye movements of different users are similar across sites. However, the across-user scan path variation was greater on newspaper homepages. This finding suggests that the design layouts of newspaper and TV-oriented homepages influenced eye movements differently.

Scan paths on newspaper homepages had more variability than those on TV-oriented homepages. The finding is consistent with the visual traces see Figures 2 through 7 that depict less dense traces on newsprint homepages. It appears that as participants looked for news stories they focused in the document body and on text links. When links were concentrated in one general area, as on TV homepages, those areas capture visual attention, perhaps resulting in less scan path variability.

Conversely, on the newsprint sites, designs resembled a newspaper with prominent headlines throughout the page, possibly making link groupings less salient and resulting in across-user variability. We used string-editing and OMA as means to identify where participants fixated on the homepages and to observe scan paths variations within and across users.

As noted by Josephson and Holmes these methods afforded ways of identifying, assessing, and categorizing scan path sequences. They were especially appropriate because, like other research e. In the study, the utility of the string-edit and OMA methods depended on defining layout regions of the display. In this case, the Websites had analogous layouts overall and information appoQArtioned to specific regions was similar across sites.

Had there been greater variability in layouts and associated content, the definition of regions would have been more difficult. Major newspapers and TV news providers each uniquely represent their traditional media origins online. While these representations may be perceptual to users, we observed no differences in measures number of fixations, fixation duration, gaze time, and saccade rate of ocular behavior resulting from type of site.

We expected the measures to differ by site type but this expectation was unfounded, at least for a free-form browsing task. However, this is an area for additional research because it is possible that differences in these metrics would be observed had participants performed a visual search for a specific target under a time constraint.

As one might expect, participants fixated mostly in content areas of the page, areas D and E of Figure 1. TV-oriented homepages presented a high concentration of text links in the upper portion of the screen and, generally, their placement was consistent across sites.

Consequently, participants fixated in those areas. Conversely, when participants search newspaper sites they had more fixations in region E, where content and links were located.

Moreover, newspaper sites use headlines throughout the page as a primary navigation to news stories. From these observations we surmise the following: This seems especially important for newspaper sites that use headlines as primary navigation, which are dispersed over the page. Scan paths on newspaper homepages exhibited more across-user variability than those on TV homepages. This finding revealed differences in how newspaper and TV-oriented homepages support navigation to news content top stories.

The TV-oriented homepages presented lists of text links whereas the newspaper homepages used headlines as primary navigation, which produced less concentrated visual attention. If we can assume that the purpose of a site homepage is to provide users the most efficient access to a limited number of top news stories, then the observed variability intimates that the information search was less optimal on newspaper sites.

Concentrating links in one area of the screen, as on TV-oriented sites, appeared to serve several useful functions. First, as observed, link groupings attracted user attention and served as a focal point of navigation.

Second, the link listings grouped items of similar functionality into a single prominent area of the display and they conveyed to users what stories the news editors deemed as most newsworthy.

It is also worth noting that the total viewing time was slightly longer on TV-oriented sites. While speculative, it is possible that link groupings offer a focal point for navigation and, at the same time, engender more thorough reading. On the other hand, using headlines as primary navigation, as on newspaper sites, induced variability in how different users directed their attention.

This resulted in more dispersed visual traces, with the eye traversing a wider area of the display. Newspaper sites could potentially reduce variability in visual attention and provide an easily scanned list of top news stories by grouping links consistently in upper regions of the page.

This navigation structure could be used in addition to the current headlines navigation and it may provide a more efficient means of navigation and perhaps more focused reading. Future research would be needed to examine the extent to which users use link grouping versus headlines navigation. In general, we believe that eye-tracking and the methods used in the study to observe attention allocation patterns offer usability practitioners valuable tools to assess product usability. Overall, eye-tracking helps practitioners evaluate the extent to which the visual display elements presented on many interactive systems enhance or detract from the user experience.

Usability engineers have used eye-tracking for many years because, among other things, it affords product developers information about where users focus attention as well as what fails to get their attention. Eye movement data provide developers information pertaining to the efficiency of visual searches, how users process visual information while interacting with systems, and the factors contributing to failed searches Bojko, These data can help usability practitioners investigate the efficiency with which experts and novices process visual information and how users progress from novice to expert.

Moreover, eye-tracking offers a quantifiable means to verify observations obtained with other usability methods. For example, when conducting usability tests on news Websites, we often use software to record mouse-clicks, Web page changes, and time on tasks, among other things. Eye-tracking data help make these events salient, which ultimately enables practitioners to improve the usability of products and the overall user experience.

PC Software User Guide pp. Interaction between television and child-related characteristics as demonstrated by eye movement research. Educational, Communication and Technology: A Journal of Theory Research and Development, 28 4 , pp.

Using eye tracking to compare Web page designs: Journal of Usability Studies, 3 1 , pp. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 9 1 , pp. Using information scent to model user information needs and actions and the Web. What are you looking for?: An eye-tracking study of information usage in Web search. Recall and eye tracking study of adolescents viewing tobacco ads.

Journal of the American Medical Association, 1 pp. Eye movements of aircraft pilots during instrument-landing approaches. Aeronautical Engineering Review, 9 2 , pp.

Examining users on news provider Websites: A review of methodology. Journal of Usability Studies, 3 3 , Observations of information seeking behavior on news provider web sites, Manuscript submitted for publication.

Eye tracking in web search tasks: Categorization methods for user sessions on the Web. Changing our world, changing ourselves pp. For many home broadband users, the Internet is a primary news source. Retrieved December 12, , from http: Eye tracking in Human-Computer Interaction and usability research: Ready to deliver the promises, In J.

Cognitive and applied aspects of eye movement research pp. Newspapers getting more web visits. The Associated Press, Retrieved January 27, , from http: Visual attention to repeated Internet images: Eye monitoring studies on TV news and the Web converge: A tale of two screens.

Algorithms, Applications, and Experiments. A Framework for a Theory of Picture Recognition. John Wiley and Sons. The Media Audit Perception of sign language and its application to visual communications for deaf people.

National Institute of Standard and Technology Retrieved August 14, , from http: Visual attention to repeat print advertising: A test of scanpath theory. Journal of Marketing Research, 36 4 , pp. Eye movements in reading and information processing: Fox29 ran the story in their first block.

It was the actually the sixth story out of ten. The second story covered by both the paper and the television station involved a failed bank robbery in Camden County.

Both outlets provided very similar information. Neither provided anything of substance over the other. The robber had apparently handed the teller a note demanding money at which time the teller promptly turned her back on the would-be robber leaving him standing there dumbfounded.

The empty-handed robber left, and was still at large. This obvious difference in judgement between the two outlets for both stories could be attributed to the limited information in the story. Fox29 likely pushed them up for the exact same reasons short story fits nicely into the standard 20 second voiceover.

By examining the overall coverage on the day it is easy to see the stories were vastly different. In a similar fashion, a newspaper reporter relies on as much information as possible to write a story, because the visual element is not there to assist.

Perhaps through the examination of one major story over a period of say, three days, can we gain better insight into how the outlets should be judged. State Senator Vincent J.

Fumo was officially indicted on February 6, Cameras, microphones, digital audio recorders, and notepads were continuously thrust into the faces of defendants, attorneys, agents, friends and foes throughout the entirety of this case. To say the story sparked a media frenzy would be putting it mildly.

In an effort to determine how well the media covered the Fumo extravaganza I examined a few critical days in the events. Starting with the date the actual indictment was handed down, I have examined three total days of coverage from The Philadelphia Inquirer and Fox I have poured over nearly 30 articles and viewed more than 7 hours of news tape from The coverage began on February 6, The city was already abuzz with news that Senator Fumo had stepped down as ranking Democrat on the Senate Appropriations Committee in anticipation of the indictment coming as early as the following day.

The Inquirer produced four articles. It brought the perspective of not only the announcement, but also the consequences. Fox29 had a reporter live in Center City who reported just receiving official word the indictment had been handed down. This provided an instantaneous and current update on the developing story. At that time Fox29 had little more to go on other than the indictment had been make official. The package — 3 minutes in length — was by far the most detailed and original report from Fox29 for the entire three day period.

The report provided an overview of the charges being leveled at Fumo. Attorney Pat Meehan as he read the charges. Many of the sound bites used in the package were of an accusatory, non-fact-based sort. By the time the 10pm rolled around, the Fumo package had slid to the sixth story from the top of the hour.

By the time February 7 rolled around, the Inquirer seized its opportunity to dig through the indictment and put their reporting skills to the test. A search of the Lexis-Nexis database found The Inquirer ran approximately 17 stories dealing with the Fumo indictment on February 7 stories may have come directly from Philly.

Articles that could be clearly identified as original print reports combined to include the efforts of six Inquirer staff writers and more than 7, words. The Inquirer staff went through the Fumo indictment with a comb. The Inquirer produced articles detailing almost every dollar investigators claimed Fumo spent illegally from yachts and SUVs to biscotti and cashews. Fox29 did little more than mention her by name in any of their reporting over the three day period. The Inquirer really got into the meat of the indictment, whereas Fox29 provided more of a broad overview.

By the time February 7 rolled around, Fox29 had already presented their initial — most informative — report. The February 7th 11am show provided a package that ran 1: It included footage of Fumo walking to turn himself in, as well as a sound bite from his attorney, Richard Sprague. The reporter also noted that as part of his surrender, Fumo was required to relinquish his passport and the more than firearms he owned.

The 5pm show allotted another package running 1: No new information was provided.

Report Abuse

Main Topics

Privacy Policy

What are the differences between TV and a newspaper? Update Cancel. ad by YieldStreet. Other than the obvious, the real difference is the depth that reporting is given in a newspaper vs. the TV. A newspaper has dedicated investigative journalists, whereas a TV station will have a group of personalities that would equate to stenographers.

Privacy FAQs

Newspaper vs Tv Print and television are two dominant media outlets for the news. Unlike radio, they are predominately visual, although television provides both visual and auditory information. Newspaper .

About Our Ads

I think that this proves the concept of objective reporter vs. Investagative reporter that we learnt in class. The news on TV mostly give objective reporting because, like it was said in the article above, there is a lot of bystanders who tell us what they've seen (he said, she said). Television Vs. Newspaper Essay Sample. “The newspaper gives them detailed information about a basketball game they can look at again and again, but, the TV puts them in the arena,” (Television Versus Newspaper News). If you ask anyone what they prefer, television or newspaper most would prefer television. Especially in this generation.

Cookie Info

Differences in the measures for newspaper versus TV-oriented news Websites were not found to be statistically significant. Table 1. Visual Attention Allocation Measures by Type of News Website. Television vs. Radio bisnesila.tkne/Newspaper (Print) vs. Internet (Online) vs. Billboard (Outdoor) Advertising.