As opposed to the earlier two examples, this thesis specifically raises and examines the effectiveness of a self-conceived or observed theory. To this end, the writer looks first at presenting and arguing for all aspects of the theory, which can be seen with the first chapter.
It is worth noting that many qualifications goes into his discussion, explaining just about every major choice he makes with respect to his model. This work also has the added complication of being a predominantly quantitative analysis. As such, it is proper that a good number of sections were dedicated to exposition, analysis, and discussion of the techniques that he used, including even the software involved.
The meat of the research here lies in the third and fourth chapters, which examines policies and tactics respectively. In similar theses, these would be the case study analysis sections, where the theory proposed earlier is applied and interacted with studied events or occurrences. Skip to content [toc] Research Papers Social science research papers combine the presentation of both argument and evidence in response to a core question.
This is just one. Introduction State the core question; Tell the reader the significance of the question; Provide a brief version of your answer to the question; Provide an overview of the rest of the paper.
Case Study or Case Studies Apply the theoretical framework to one or more cases. Policy Papers One purpose of a policy paper is to make a prescription for future policies. Criteria and Goals for the Policy Provide clear and measurable criteria for assessing the success of a policy choice. Theses and Long Projects It goes without saying that there is no simple formula on how to optimally structure your work.
Think about it as somewhat equivalent to the biological levels of organization of living things: Examples The following are some examples of theses organizations, represented by central arguments and table of contents: Nicholas LeSuer Miller, Class of Looking the Other Way South Korea: Coercing a Cold War Ally Israel: Persistence Pays Off South Africa: Too Little Too Late Libya: Nonproliferation Policy Paralysis North Korea: Failure at Every Turn Findings and Implications.
Kathryn Hana Cragg, Class of Start with a strong argument, followed by a stronger one, and end with the strongest argument as your final point. The conclusion is where you form a summary of all your arguments so you can arrive at your final position. Explain and reiterate why you've ended up with the said conclusion. As mentioned earlier, here are some sample outlines for research papers:.
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The title page is the first page of the paper and should contain the following:. A good title is informative, i. The following titles would be uninformative and too general: The second page of scientific paper begins with the Abstract. The Abstract states clearly and concisely what is dealt with in the paper. It is a concise statement of the questions, general procedure, basic findings, and main conclusions of the paper. This is a brief, all encompassing section summarizing what you discuss in the rest of the paper, and should be written last, after you know what you have said!
The Introduction presents a background for the work you are doing and put it into an appropriate context e. What questions are you asking in your study? What organisms or ideas were studied and why are they interesting or relevant? Identify the subject s and hypotheses of your work. Tell the reader why s he should keep reading and why what you are about to present is interesting. Briefly state your general approach or methods e.
Cite any references you used as sources for your background Information. This section should be written in the past tense when referring to this experiment. Previously published work is considered part of the present body of knowledge. If deemed necessary, the reasons for the choice of a particular method should be stated, and. Do not keep the reader in suspense. Let the reader follow the development of the evidence.
There should be enough detail that a competent worker can repeat the experiments. What procedures were followed? Are the treatments and controls clearly described? Does this section describe the sampling regime and sample sizes, including how individuals were assigned to treatments?
What research materials were used: Briefly explain the relevance of the methods to the questions you introduced above e. If applicable, include a description of the statistical methods you used in your analysis. Careful writing of this section is important because the cornerstone of the scientific method requires that your results are reproducible, and for the results to be reproducible, you must provide the basis for the repetition of your experiments by others.
This section should be written in the past tense. Your data should b presented succinctly in the body of the report and presented in detail as tables or graphs.
However, do not present the same data in both tabular and graphical form in the same paper. Strive for clarity, the results should be short and sweet.
The results section should be written so that any college student could read the text to learn what you have done. For example, you might use a paragraph to explain what is seen on a particular graph;. When the enzyme as soaked in sulfuric acid, it produced no change in absorbance When stating your results in the body of the text, refer to your graphs and tables.
Tables and graphs alone do not make a Results section. In the text of this section describe your results do not list actual numbers, but point out trends or important features. Refer to the figures and tables by number as well as any other relevant information. Results are typically not discussed much more in this section unless brief discussion aids clarity.
In referring to your results, avoid phrases like 'Table 1 shows the rate at which students fall asleep in class as a function of the time of day that class is taught. This is the place to tell the reader what you found out, not what it means. Each table and figure should be numbered sequentially for easy reference in the text of the Results and Discussion sections.
The research paper outline is essential for any article or term paper. The outline may make a great difference on how your work is interpreted. This article is a part of the guide.
Scientific Paper Outline Voice: • All in present tense, except for methods sentences, which are in past tense. • Do NOT use 1st person. The experiment should always be the subject of your sentences.
Research Paper Outline Examples Once you've decided what topic you will be writing about, the next thing you should pay attention to is the scope of your paper . Body Sections-- the outline below is intended to help you organize your thoughts in a couple of different ways. First, of course, is figuring out the main points that need to be made. Second, since this is a Review paper, sources are equally important, so each section below also has room for writing in the associated literature.
[toc] Research Papers Social science research papers combine the presentation of both argument and evidence in response to a core question. It is common for such papers to have a literature review that considers the work others have done to address the core subject. Generic Research Paper Outline Example There are many ways to structure. General Format for Writing a Scientific Paper. When researching for information for the Introduction and Discussion sections or the paper, seek out original sources that are written by experts in the field (e.g. articles found in scientific journals such as Science, Nature.