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How to Write Your First Research Paper


❶Dissertation topics and writing argumentative essay - Writing best is a first class instructional essay writing service. One common source of wordiness is unnecessary intensifiers.

1. Schedule your writing time in Outlook

What were their rulers like? What changes were going on in society at the time? During the 20th century, chickens were very poor. The king of the land jailed chickens without trial regularly.

Officials made laws that prevented chickens from going to school or publishing books or newspapers A secret school formed in that taught chickens to read and write The number of chicken protest marches increased between and No chickens owned land Police searched Chicken houses regularly. Chickens were only paid 10 cents an hour, while most humans were paid 30 cents an hour.

Chickens started to publish secret newspapers Hundreds of Chickens starved between and 16 Question 1 What conditions did Chickens live under? During the twentieth century, chickens were very poor. Hundreds of chickens starved between and Chickens were only paid 10 cents an hour, while humans were paid 30 cents an hour Question 2 What were their rulers like?

The king passed laws preventing chickens from going to school. Police searched the houses of chickens regularly. Chickens were jailed without trial regularly. Question 3 What changes were happening in society? Chickens started to publish illegal newspapers A secret school formed for Chickens The number of protest marches increased 17 What conclusions can we come to for each question?

What general conclusion can we come to for our research question? Chickens were ruled by an oppressive state. Chickens were becoming more educated about their rights. What caused the Great Chicken Rebellion of ? The Chicken Rebellion of was a result of extreme poverty, an oppressive state, and education about Chicken rights. Very close, if not identical, to your research question answer!! Last sentence in your introductory paragraph Should be specific and manageable! Better The Great Chicken Rebellion of affected Canada politically, economically, socially and culturally.

Poor The Great Chicken Rebellion was caused by the anger and frustration of chickens everywhere. Better The Great Chicken Rebellion was a result of extreme chicken poverty, an oppressive state, and education for Chicken Rights. Break down your thesis into smaller points Irons out bare bones of your information Insert your research, in order, as supporting evidence Will save you time in the end!

Argument One Extreme poverty provoked chickens to take action for their rights. The first riot that started the rebellion was in Halifax. The poverty that the chickens lived in will be examined.

State oppression and education will also be discussed. All of these things caused the rebellion. The Rebellion was an event that secured human rights for chickens in the laws of our nation. These rights were hard won, but fought for out of necessity and desperation. Beginning in the early s, the state had begun to suppress the freedoms of chickens and poverty among chickens became widespread.

However, Clandestine groups of chickens began to organize and find ways to educate their peers about their natural rights. The Great Chicken Rebellion resulted from extreme chicken poverty, an oppressive state and education for chicken rights. Chickens usually didnt make enough money to buy food for the month. Many chickens went to work hungry. They started to demonstrate in the streets to protest bread prices.

In the early s, many chickens lived in poverty, and the situation worsened as the century progressed. In , fifty per cent of chickens lived below the poverty line in Canada, while by , seventy-five per cent were living in poverty Reid, In The Chicken Diaries , Jones describes the plight of many chickens she met in Legal Aid office who could not even afford to feed their families.

Moreover, it was almost impossible to break out of this poverty-- laws prevented chickens from making more than ten cents an hour, which did not even cover the cheapest rent, and few chickens owned land or capital Jones, In , a series of protests began against the prices of bread and the wage laws. These demonstrations became increasingly violent over the next three years.

In , there were eight protests across Canada and all were nonviolent. In , there were fifty protests across Canada, twenty of which became violent, despite increased police security at demonstrations Reid, Anger was fermenting over harsh living conditions and the chickens were starting to demand changes. Comments further, but does NOT present new information. Should have a sense of finality-- dont just stop!! Chickens found out that they were smart too. They realized that their lives were harsh compared to humans and cows, and that they were unequal.

They started to push for laws that would state their equal rights. In this paper, we saw how poverty, state oppression, and education helped them do this.

All of these forces combined to create a climate in which change was both necessary and desirable. Conditions of extreme poverty drove chickens to protest against the unequal distribution of wealth and improve their situation.

Excessive state repression provoked chickens to risk their lives for personal freedoms of the next generation. Finally, secret schools became the centre for radical thoughts on rights and freedoms, and these ideas were propelled into secret newspapers and speeches at secret meetings. Discontent and desperation were channeled into newly organized and educated activist groups, who planned and promoted a rebellion for a receptive Chicken public.

Though the battle was long and difficult, many chickens today celebrate these ancestors who fought for the freedoms and rights they enjoy. The King of Canada took several steps to ensure that chicken rights were limited. In , he passed a law preventing chickens from going to school.

Source Someone else who said it! When you are forced to see only a small portion of your writing, you are less likely to get distracted and are more likely to notice problems.

You will end up spotting more unnecessary words, wrongly worded phrases, or unparallel constructions. After you apply all these strategies, you are ready to share your writing with your friends, colleagues, and a writing advisor in the writing center.

Get as much feedback as you can, especially from non-specialists in your field. You may decide what you want to change and how after you receive the feedback and sort it in your head. Even though some researchers make the revision an endless process and can hardly stop after a 14th draft; having from five to seven drafts of your paper is a norm in the sciences.

It is late at night again. You are still in your lab finishing revisions and getting ready to submit your paper. You will submit your paper tomorrow, and regardless of the outcome, you know that you can do it. If one journal does not take your paper, you will take advantage of the feedback and resubmit again. You will have a publication, and this is the most important achievement. What is even more important is that you have your scheduled writing time that you are going to keep for your future publications, for reading and taking notes, for writing grants, and for reviewing papers.

You are not going to lose stamina this time, and you will become a productive scientist. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Yale J Biol Med. To whom all correspondence should be addressed: This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives License, which permits for noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any digital medium, provided the original work is properly cited and is not altered in any way.

This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Writing a research manuscript is an intimidating process for many novice writers in the sciences. Schedule your writing time in Outlook Whether you have written papers or you are struggling with your first, starting the process is the most difficult part unless you have a rigid writing schedule.

Create regular time blocks for writing as appointments in your calendar and keep these appointments. Start with an outline Now that you have scheduled time, you need to decide how to start writing. Table 1 Outline — Level 1. What is the topic of my paper?

Why is this topic important? How could I formulate my hypothesis? What are my results include visuals? What is my major finding? Open in a separate window. Table 2 Outline — Level 2. Why is your research important? What is known about the topic? What are your hypotheses?

What are your objectives? Materials and Methods 1. What materials did you use? Who were the subjects of your study? What was the design of your research? What procedure did you follow? What are your most significant results? What are your supporting results? Discussion and Conclusions 1.

What are the studies major findings? Create a detailed outline and discuss it with your mentor and peers. Continue with drafts After you get enough feedback and decide on the journal you will submit to, the process of real writing begins. Starting with Materials and Methods If you still struggle with starting a paper, then write the Materials and Methods section first.

So do not run into the same problems as the writers of the sentences in 1: Bacteria were pelleted by centrifugation. To isolate T cells, lymph nodes were collected. The sentences can be improved when information is added, as in 2a and 2b , respectfully: Stem cells were isolated, according to Johnson [23]. Be meticulous and accurate in describing the Materials and Methods. Do not change the point of view within one paragraph. Writing Results Section For many authors, writing the Results section is more intimidating than writing the Materials and Methods section.

Table 3 clearly shows that … 7b. It is obvious from figure 4 that … Another source of wordiness is nominalizations, i. We tested the hypothesis that there is a disruption of membrane asymmetry.

In this paper we provide an argument that stem cells repopulate injured organs. We tested the hypothesis that the membrane asymmetry is disrupted. In this paper we argue that stem cells repopulate injured organs. Be clear, concise, and objective in describing your Results. Table 3 Moves in Research Paper Introductions. Establish a research territory a. Show that the general research area is important, central, interesting, and problematic in some way; Move 2.

Find a niche a. Indicate a gap in the previous research, or extend previous knowledge in some way. Occupy the niche a. Outline purposes or state the nature of the present research; b. List research questions or hypotheses; c. Announce principle findings; d. State the value of the present research; e. Indicate the structure of the research paper. Interest your reader in the Introduction section by signalling all its elements and stating the novelty of the work.

Discussion of the results For many scientists, writing a Discussion section is as scary as starting a paper. Table 4 Moves in Research Paper Discussions. Explain the meaning and importance of your finding. Consider alternative explanations of the findings.

Compare and contrast your findings with those of other published results. Explain any discrepancies and unexpected findings. State the limitations, weaknesses, and assumptions of your study. Closing the paper a. Summarize the answers to the research questions. Indicate the importance of the work by stating applications, recommendations, and implications.

Present the principles, relationships, and generalizations in a concise and convincing tone. Choosing the best working revision strategies Now that you have created the first draft, your attitude toward your writing should have improved.

Revise your paper at the macrostructure and the microstructure level using different strategies and techniques. Receive feedback and revise again. It is time to submit It is late at night again. The Science of Writing: Theories, Methods, Individual Differences, and Applications.

A new framework for understanding cognition and affect in writing; pp. How to Write a Lot. American Psychological Association; Pleasant music overcomes the loss of awareness in patients with visual neglect. Scientific Writing and Communication. Papers, Proposals, and Presentations. Oxford University Press; Essentials of Writing Biomedical Research Papers. Journal of Second Language Writing. Frequency And Discourse Functions.

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Have you Selected the Right Research Question? PowerPoint PPT presentation free to view. Write a Review - It's less demanding than at any other time to compose an audit and get it distributed these days. For whatever length of time that you watch couple of basic guidelines to compose a survey you can persuade a media associations, sites, and editors to distribute your audits which might be newsworthy.

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How to write a paper - http: Ethics of Scientific Paper Writing - Be a beginner or an experienced researcher scientific writing is not easy for both. Apart from the format, structure, and grammar, there are certain ethical principles to be followed in scientific writing.

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HOW TO WRITE AN EFFECTIVE RESEARCH PAPER • Getting ready with data • First draft • Structure of a scientific paper • Selecting a journal • Submission • Revision and galley proof Disclaimer: The suggestions and remarks in this presentation are based on personal research experience. Research practices and approaches vary.

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Research papers are all about organizing your ideas in a linear, understandable format. A research paper is a report summarizing the answers to the research questions you generated from the sources you gathered information from. Then presenting the work in research paper format. Choose a topic which interests and challenges you. Step 2: Find Finding as much information as possible is the key to writing a research paper So start looking! Newspaper articles Journals Internet Books 6. Step 3: Read and Take Notes Read the information before and while you write your paper.

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II THE PUBLICATION PROCESS “The foremost mission of the American Journal of Public Health is to promote public health research, policy, practice, and education. Presentation Sources. Task of writing a research paper can be daunting. Structure of a Paper. Scientific writing follows a rigid structure –.