Information on the internet changes rapidly and web pages move or are sometimes inaccessible meaning it can often be difficult to validate or even find information cited from the internet.
When referencing web pages it is helpful to include details that will help other people check or follow up the information. A suggested format is to include the author of the information this may be an individual, group or organisation , the date the page was put on the internet most web pages have a date at the bottom of the page , the title, the http: A format for referencing web pages is given below.
Full references to unpublished oral presentations, such as lectures, usually include the speaker's name, the date of the lecture, the name of the lecture or of the lecture series, and the location:.
Please note that in contrast to the format used for the published sources given in the first three examples above, the formatting of references for unpublished sources does not include italics, as there is no publication title to highlight.
If you look carefully at all the examples of full references given above, you will see that there is a consistency in the ways in which punctuation and capitalisation have been used. There are many other ways in which references can be formatted - look at the books and articles you read for other examples and at any guidelines in your course handbooks. The only rule governing formatting is the rule of consistency. Some academic disciplines prefer to use footnotes notes at the foot of the page or endnotes notes at the end of the work to reference their writing.
Although this method differs in style from the 'author, date' system, its purpose - to acknowledge the source of ideas, data or quotations without undue interruption to the flow of the writing - is the same. Footnote or endnote markers , usually a sequential series of numbers either in brackets or slightly above the line of writing or printing superscript , are placed at the appropriate point in the text.
This is normally where you would insert the author and date if you were using the 'author, date' system described above. Employers are not just looking for high academic achievement and have identified competencies that distinguish the high performers from the average graduate. Full details of the reference are then given at the bottom of the relevant page or, if endnotes are preferred, in numerical order at the end of the writing. Rules for the formatting of the detailed references follow the same principles as for the reference lists for the 'author, date' system.
National Westminster Bank plc. The reference to 'p. If the same source needs to be referred to several times, on second or subsequent occasions, a shortened reference may be used. Studies of women's employment patterns have demonstrated the relationship between marital status and employment sector. In some academic disciplines, footnotes and endnotes are not only used for references, but also to contain elaborations or explanations of points made in the main text.
If you are unsure about how to use footnotes or endnotes in your work, consult your departmental guidelines or personal tutor. Full details of how to use this system are provided by the School. Copies of the system are also made available on Blackboard. More detailed discussion of referencing conventions is to be found in the following publications:. There are also software programs, for example, Endnote and Refworks that are designed to manage references. They include the facility to incorporate 'author, date' insertions within your text, and to format reference lists automatically.
Personal tools Web Editor Log in. This means that the author's last name and the year of publication for the source should appear in the text, E. If you are referring to an idea from another work but NOT directly quoting the material, or making reference to an entire book, article or other work, you only have to make reference to the author and year of publication in your in-text reference.
If you are directly quoting from a work, you will need to include the author, year of publication, and the page number for the reference preceded by "p. Introduce the quotation with a signal phrase that includes the author's last name followed by the date of publication in parentheses.
According to Jones , "Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time" p. Jones found "students often had difficulty using APA style" p. If the author is not named in a signal phrase, place the author's last name, the year of publication, and the page number in parentheses after the quotation.
Place direct quotations longer than 40 words in a free-standing block of typewritten lines, and omit quotation marks. Start the quotation on a new line, indented five spaces from the left margin. Type the entire quotation on the new margin, and indent the first line of any subsequent paragraph within the quotation five spaces from the new margin.
The parenthetical citation should come after closing punctuation mark. Jones's study found the following:. Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time citing sources. This difficulty could be attributed to the fact that many students failed to purchase a style manual or to ask their teacher for help. If you are paraphrasing an idea from another work, you only have to make reference to the author and year of publication in your in-text reference, but APA guidelines encourage you to also provide the page number although it is not required.
According to Jones , APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners. APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners Jones, , p. APA style has a series of important rules on using author names as part of the author-date system.
There are additional rules for citing indirect sources, electronic sources, and sources without page numbers. A Work by Two Authors: Name both authors in the signal phrase or in the parentheses each time you cite the work. Research by Wegener and Petty showed A Work by Three to Five Authors: List all the authors in the signal phrase or in parentheses the first time you cite the source.
Six or More Authors: Use the first author's name followed by et al. If the work does not have an author, cite the source by its title in the signal phrase or use the first word or two in the parentheses. Titles of books and reports are italicized or underlined; titles of articles and chapters are in quotation marks.
A similar study was done of students learning to format research papers "Using APA," In the rare case the "Anonymous" is used for the author, treat it as the author's name Anonymous, In the reference list, use the name Anonymous as the author.
Organization as an Author: If the author is an organization or a government agency, mention the organization in the signal phrase or in the parenthetical citation the first time you cite the source.
According to the American Psychological Association , If the organization has a well-known abbreviation, include the abbreviation in brackets the first time the source is cited and then use only the abbreviation in later citations. Two or More Works in the Same Parentheses: When your parenthetical citation includes two or more works, order them the same way they appear in the reference list, separated by a semi-colon.
Berndt, ; Harlow, Authors With the Same Last Name: To prevent confusion, use first initials with the last names. If you have two sources by the same author in the same year, use lower-case letters a, b, c with the year to order the entries in the reference list.
Use the lower-case letters with the year in the in-text citation. Research by Berndt a illustrated that For interviews, letters, e-mails, and other person-to-person communication, cite the communicators name, the fact that it was personal communication, and the date of the communication. Do not include personal communication in the reference list.
Robbins, personal communication, January 4, Smith also claimed that many of her students had difficulties with APA style personal communication, November 3, If you use a source that was cited in another source, name the original source in your signal phrase.
List the secondary source in your reference list and include the secondary source in the parentheses. When citing material in parentheses, set off the citation with a comma, as above. If possible, cite an electronic document the same as any other document by using the author-date style. Unknown Author and Unknown Date: If no author or date is given, use the title in your signal phrase or the first word or two of the title in the parentheses and use the abbreviation "n.
Another study of students and research decisions discovered that students succeeded with tutoring "Tutoring and APA," n. When an electronic source lacks page numbers, you should try to include information that will help readers find the passage being cited. If the paragraphs are not numbered and the document includes headings, provide the appropriate heading and specify the paragraph under that heading.
Note that in some electronic sources, like Web pages, people can use the Find function in their browser to locate any passages you cite. According to Smith , Mind over Matter section, para. Never use the page numbers of Web pages you print out; different computers print Web pages with different pagination.
In the text, place a superscript numeral immediately after the text about which you would like to include more information, e. Scientists examined the fossilized remains of the wooly-wooly yak.
At the end of the paper, create a separate page labeled Notes with the title centered at the top of the page. Below are examples of two kinds of notes. Your reference list should appear at the end of your paper. It provides the information necessary for a reader to locate and retrieve any source you cite in the body of the paper. Each source you cite in the paper must appear in your reference list; likewise, each entry in the reference list must be cited in your text.
Your references should begin on a new page separate from the text of the essay; label this page References with no quotation marks, underlining, etc. It should be double-spaced just like the rest of your essay.
The following rules for handling works by a single author or multiple authors apply to all APA-style references in your reference list, regardless of the type of work book, article, electronic resource, etc. Last name first, followed by author initials. Friendship quality and social development. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 11 , List by their last names and initials. Mood management across affective states: The hedonic contingency hypothesis. There's more to self-esteem than whether it is high or low: The importance of stability of self-esteem.
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65 , If there are more than six authors, list the first six as above and then "et al. Writing labs and the Hollywood connection. Journal of Film and Writing, 44 3 , Merriam-Webster's collegiate dictionary 10th ed. When your essay includes parenthetical citations of sources with no author named, use a shortened version of the source's title instead of an author's name. Use quotation marks and italics as appropriate.
For example, parenthetical citations of the two sources above would appear as follows: Merriam-Webster's , and "New Drug," Use the author's name for all entries and list the entries by the year earliest comes first. When an author appears both as a sole author and, in another citation, as the first author of a group, list the one-author entries first.
Friends' influence on students' adjustment to school. Educational Psychologist, 34 , Friends' influence on adolescents' adjustment to school. Child Development, 66 , Flexible corrections of juror judgments: Implications for jury instructions. Effects of mood on high elaboration attitude change: The mediating role of likelihood judgments. European Journal of Social Psychology, 24 , Make sure you are familiar with the referencing style your faculty or school requires.
Most have guides specifying the system they prefer. If this is the case, use the system you are most comfortable with. See The Learning Centre guides to various citation styles.
Remember to list all the books and articles you use for the essay in a Reference List. This is a list of all works cited in your essay, and should be the final page. Skip to main content. Sign on Search Menu.
Referencing the Essay Referencing is a system that allows you to acknowledge the contributions and work of others in your writing by citing your sources. A feature of academic writing is that it contains references to the words, information and ideas of others.
Facebook Page APA Referencing Guide Example APA Style Essay Professional Referencing Services All of the professional writing services provided by UK Essays include full research and referencing in a style of your choosing.
No date was entered. APA requires n.p. be entered if the Year of publication is not known. If you wish to use [no date] then scroll down and click on Create Reference again to create a reference without a . Read this essay on Essay on Referencing. Come browse our large digital warehouse of free sample essays. Get the knowledge you need in order to pass your classes and more. Only at bisnesila.tk".
As a very rough guide, while the introduction and the conclusions to your writing might be largely based on your own ideas, within the main body of your report, essay or dissertation, you would expect to be drawing on, and thus referencing your debt to, the work of others in each main section or paragraph. Citing movies in essays and papers is different depending on the formatting that your school uses. The four most common writing formats used in United States schools are MLA, AP, Chicago and APA styles. Many teachers and professors will discount points for using the wrong referencing system, so it is important to find.