In — 90, the communist regimes of Soviet satellite states collapsed in rapid succession in Poland, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Bulgaria, Romania, and Mongolia. East and West Germany united, Czechoslovakia peacefully split into Czech Republic and Slovakia , while in Yugoslavia began a violent break up into its former 6 sub-unit republics. Kosovo , which was previously an autonomous unit of Serbia declared independence in , but has received less international recognition.
In December , Gorbachev resigned as president and the Soviet Union dissolved relatively peacefully into fifteen sovereign republics, all of which rejected communism and most of which adopted democratic reforms and free-market economies. Inside those new republics, four major areas have claimed their own independence, but not received widespread international recognition. After decades of civil war, Indonesia finally recognized the independence of East Timor in The Kuomintang -led Republic of China government retreated to Taipei , its jurisdiction now limited to Taiwan and several outlying islands.
Since then, the People's Republic of China has been involved in disputes with the ROC over issues of sovereignty and the political status of Taiwan.
As noted, self-determination movements remain strong in some areas of the world. Some areas possess de facto independence, such as Taiwan, North Cyprus , Kosovo , and South Ossetia , but their independence is disputed by one or more major states. Significant movements for self-determination also persist for locations that lack de facto independence, such as Kurdistan , Catalonia , Balochistan , Chechnya , and the State of Palestine. Since the early s, the legitimatization of the principle of national self-determination has led to an increase in the number of conflicts within states, as sub-groups seek greater self-determination and full secession, and as their conflicts for leadership within groups and with other groups and with the dominant state become violent.
The year United Nations Millennium Declaration failed to deal with these new demands, mentioning only "the right to self-determination of peoples which remain under colonial domination and foreign occupation.
There is not yet a recognized legal definition of "peoples" in international law. In cases where people lack representation by a state's government, the unrepresented become a separate people. Present international law does not recognize ethnic and other minorities as separate peoples, with the notable exception of cases in which such groups are systematically disenfranchised by the government of the state they live in.
If the "people" are unanimous in their desire for self-determination, it strengthens their claim. For example, the populations of federal units of the Yugoslav federation were considered a people in the breakup of Yugoslavia, although some of those units had very diverse populations. Thus, self-determination grants individuals the right to form "a people," which then has the right to establish an independent state, as long as they grant the same to all other individuals and peoples.
Criteria for the definition of "people having the right of self-determination" was proposed during Kosovo case decision of the International Court of Justice: National self-determination appears to challenge the principle of territorial integrity or sovereignty of states as it is the will of the people that makes a state legitimate.
This implies a people should be free to choose their own state and its territorial boundaries. However, there are far more self-identified nations than there are existing states and there is no legal process to redraw state boundaries according to the will of these peoples. Pavkovic and Radan describe three theories of international relations relevant to self-determination. Allen Buchanan , author of seven books on self-determination and secession, supports territorial integrity as a moral and legal aspect of constitutional democracy.
However, he also advances a "Remedial Rights Only Theory" where a group has "a general right to secede if and only if it has suffered certain injustices, for which secession is the appropriate remedy of last resort. Vita Gudeleviciute holds that in cases of non-self-governing peoples and foreign military occupation the principle of self-determination trumps that of territorial integrity.
In cases where people lack representation by a state's government, they also may be considered a separate people, but under current law cannot claim the right to self-determination. On the other hand, she finds that secession within a single state is a domestic matter not covered by international law. Thus there are no on what groups may constitute a seceding people. A number of states have laid claim to territories, which they allege were removed from them as a result of colonialism.
This is justified by reference to Paragraph 6 of UN Resolution XV , which states that any attempt "aimed at partial or total disruption of the national unity and the territorial integrity of a country is incompatible with the purposes and principles of the Charter". This, it is claimed, applies to situations where the territorial integrity of a state had been disrupted by colonisation, so that the people of a territory subject to a historic territorial claim are prevented from exercising a right to self-determination.
This interpretation is rejected by many states, who argue that Paragraph 2 of UN Resolution XV states that "all peoples have the right to self-determination" and Paragraph 6 cannot be used to justify territorial claims. The original purpose of Paragraph 6 was "to ensure that acts of self-determination occur within the established boundaries of colonies, rather than within sub-regions". Further, the use of the word attempt in Paragraph 6 denotes future action and cannot be construed to justify territorial redress for past action.
In order to accommodate demands for minority rights and avoid secession and the creation of a separate new state, many states decentralize or devolve greater decision-making power to new or existing subunits or autonomous areas.
More limited measures might include restricting demands to the maintenance of national cultures or granting non-territorial autonomy in the form of national associations which would assume control over cultural matters.
This would be available only to groups that abandoned secessionist demands and the territorial state would retain political and judicial control, but only if would remain with the territorially organized state. This includes the question of how an unwanted state can be imposed upon a minority. He explores five contemporary theories of secession. In "anarcho-capitalist" theory only landowners have the right to secede.
In communitarian theory, only those groups that desire direct or greater political participation have the right, including groups deprived of rights, per Allen Buchanan. In two nationalist theories, only national cultural groups have a right to secede. Australian professor Harry Beran's democratic theory endorses the equality of the right of secession to all types of groups. Unilateral secession against majority rule is justified if the group allows secession of any other group within its territory.
Most sovereign states do not recognize the right to self-determination through secession in their constitutions. Many expressly forbid it.
However, there are several existing models of self-determination through greater autonomy and through secession. In liberal constitutional democracies the principle of majority rule has dictated whether a minority can secede. The Supreme Court in Texas v. White held secession could occur "through revolution, or through consent of the States.
The Chinese Communist Party followed the Soviet Union in including the right of secession in its constitution in order to entice ethnic nationalities and Tibet into joining. However, the Party eliminated the right to secession in later years, and had anti-secession clause written into the Constitution before and after the founding the People's Republic of China. The Constitution of the Union of Burma contained an express state right to secede from the union under a number of procedural conditions.
It was eliminated in the constitution of the Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma officially the "Union of Myanmar". Burma still allows "local autonomy under central leadership. As of the constitutions of Austria, Ethiopia, France, and Saint Kitts and Nevis have express or implied rights to secession. Switzerland allows for the secession from current and the creation of new cantons. In the case of proposed Quebec separation from Canada the Supreme Court of Canada in ruled that only both a clear majority of the province and a constitutional amendment confirmed by all participants in the Canadian federation could allow secession.
The draft of the European Union Constitution allowed for the voluntary withdrawal of member states from the union, although the State wanted to leave could not be involved in the vote deciding whether or not they can leave the Union.
As a result of the successful constitutional referendum held in , every municipality in the Principality of Liechtenstein has the right to secede from the Principality by a vote of a majority of the citizens residing in this municipality.
In determining international borders between sovereign states, self-determination has yielded to a number of other principles. The bloody Yugoslav wars in the s were related mostly to border issues because the international community applied a version of uti possidetis juris in transforming the existing internal borders of the various Yugoslav republics into international borders, despite the conflicts of ethnic groups within those boundaries.
In the s indigenous populations of the northern two-thirds of Quebec province opposed being incorporated into a Quebec nation and stated a determination to resist it by force. The border between Northern Ireland and the Irish Free State was based on the borders of existing counties and did not include all of historic Ulster.
A Boundary Commission was established to consider re-drawing it. Its proposals, which amounted to a small net transfer to Northern Ireland, were leaked to the press and then not acted upon. There have been a number of notable cases of self-determination. For more information on past movements see list of historical autonomist and secessionist movements and lists of decolonized nations. Also see list of autonomous areas by country and list of territorial autonomies and list of active autonomist and secessionist movements.
Republic of Artsakh Republic of Nagorno-Karabakh declared its independence basing on self-determination rights on September 2, It successfully defended its independence in subsequent war with Azerbaijan , but remains largely unrecognized by UN states today.
From onwards, self-determination has become the topic of some debate in Australia in relation to Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders. In the s, the Indigenous community approached the Federal Government and requested the right to administer their own communities.
This encompassed basic local government functions, ranging from land dealings and management of community centres to road maintenance and garbage collection, as well as setting education programmes and standards in their local schools. The traditional homeland of the Tuareg peoples was divided up by the modern borders of Mali , Algeria and Niger.
Numerous rebellions occurred over the decades, but in the Tuaregs succeeded in occupying their land and declaring the independence of Azawad. However, their movement was hijacked by the Islamist terrorist group Ansar Dine. The Basque Country Basque: Euskal Herria , Spanish: Pays Basque as a cultural region not to be confused with the homonym Autonomous Community of the Basque country is a European region in the western Pyrenees that spans the border between France and Spain, on the Atlantic coast.
Since the 19th century, Basque nationalism has demanded the right of some kind of self-determination. The right of self-determination was asserted by the Basque Parliament in , and It was approved by a clear majority at the Spanish level, and with The derived autonomous regime for the BAC was approved by Spanish Parliament and also by the Basque citizens in referendum.
The autonomous statue of Navarre Amejoramiento del Fuero: Founded in , it evolved from a group advocating traditional cultural ways to a paramilitary group with the goal of Basque independence. Its ideology is Marxist—Leninist.
From to the present day, the indigenous people of Biafra have been agitating for independence to revive their country. They have registered a human rights organization known as Bilie Human Rights Initiative both in Nigeria and in the United Nations to advocate for their right to self-determination and achieve independence by the rule of law.
After the Catalan march for independence , in which between , and 1. The Parliament of Catalonia voted to hold a 'referendum or consultation' in the next four-year legislature in which the people of Catalonia would decide on becoming a new independent and sovereign state.
The parliamentary decision was approved by a large majority of MPs: In December the President of the Generalitat Artur Mas and the governing coalition agreed to set the referendum for self-determination on 9 November , and legislation specifically saying that the consultation would not be a "referendum" was enacted, only to be blocked overnight by the Spanish Constitutional Court, at the request of the Spanish government.
Given the block, the Government turned it into a simple "consultation to the people" instead. The question in the consultation was "Do you want Catalonia to be a State? However, as the consultation was not a formal referendum, these printed answers were just suggestions and other answers were also accepted and catalogued as "other answers" instead as null votes.
In the morning there were long queues awaiting the opening of polling stations. As the organization did not had a proper census, it used a system based on the address in the Spanish Identity Card to determine where to vote and to prevent the citizen from being able to vote several times.
This is the reason why some claimed irregularities in the voting system and some people even alleged in Spanish media to have exploited the system to vote twice or several times however, these claims were never confirmed.
Four top members of Catalonia's political leadership were barred from public office for having defied the Constitutional court's last-minute ban. Almost three years later 1 October , the Catalan government called a referendum for independence under legislation adopted in September despite being hurriedly blocked by the Constitutional Court of Spain , with the question "Do you want Catalonia to become an independent state in the form of a Republic?
For weeks up to the voting day the Spanish authorities tried fruitlessly to track down the ballot boxes in the event, they were smuggled in from French Catalonia , and on the day, after thousands of locals had kept the polling stations open over the weekend with cultural and educational activities, following a judge's instructions, the Catalan police prevented voting in over polling stations, without a single violent incident, while the Spanish police confiscated ballot boxes and closed down 92,  but with many incidents involving truncheon charges and over 1, people receiving medical treatment.
Under Dzhokhar Dudayev , Chechnya declared independence as the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria , using self-determination, Russia's history of bad treatment of Chechens, and a history of independence before invasion by Russia as main motives.
Russia has restored control over Chechnya, but the separatist government functions still in exile, though it has been split into two entities: There is an active secessionist movement based on the self-determination of the residents of the Donetsk and Luhansk regions of eastern Ukraine , allegedly against the instability and corruption of the Ukrainian government.
However, many in the international community assert that referendums held there in regarding independence from Ukraine were illegitimate and undemocratic.
The overthrow was backed by western states and involved far-right or neo-Nazi forces, as documented in western media. Self-determination is referred to in the Falkland Islands Constitution  and is a factor in the Falkland Islands sovereignty dispute.
The population has existed for over nine generations, continuously for over years. Argentina states the principle of self-determination is not applicable since the current inhabitants are not aboriginal and were brought to replace the Argentine population, which was expelled by an 'act of force', forcing the Argentinian inhabitants to directly leave the occupied islands. Argentina thus argues that, in the case of the Falkland Islands, the principle of territorial integrity should have precedence over self-determination.
The right to self-determination is referred to in the pre-amble of Chapter 1 of the Gibraltar constitution ,  and, since the United Kingdom also gave assurances that the right to self-determination of Gibraltarians would be respected in any transfer of sovereignty over the territory, is a factor in the dispute with Spain over the territory. However, the UK government differs with the Gibraltarian government in that it considers Gibraltarian self-determination to be limited by the Treaty of Utrecht , which prevents Gibraltar achieving independence without the agreement of Spain, a position that the Gibraltarian government does not accept.
The Spanish government denies that Gibraltarians have the right to self-determination, considering them to be "an artificial population without any genuine autonomy" and not "indigenous". This sparked several nation's protest along with Great Britain's declaration on 14 December that the decision is invalid. It advocates the autonomous region to become a fully independent sovereign state.
Since the handover, many Hongkongers are increasingly concerned about Beijing's growing encroachment on the territory's freedoms and the failure of the Hong Kong government to deliver 'true' democracy. This sparked the day massive peaceful protests which was dubbed as the " Umbrella Revolution " and the pro-independence movement emerged on the Hong Kong political scene.
Since then, localism has gained momentum, particularly after the failure of the peaceful Umbrella Movement. Young localist leaders have led numerous protest actions against pro-Chinese policies to raise awareness of social problems of Hong Kong under Chinese rule.
These include the sit-in protest against the Bill to Strengthen Internet Censorship , demonstrations against Chinese political interference in the University of Hong Kong , the Recover Yuen Long protests and the Mong Kok civil unrest. Maharaja Hari Singh, the ruler residing over Kashmir at the time accession, signed the Instrument of Accession Act on October 26, as his territory was being attacked by Pakistani tribesmen.
The passing of this Act allowed Jammu and Kashmir to accede to India on legal terms. When this Act was taken to Lord Mountbatten, the last viceroy of British India, he agreed to it and stated that a referendum needed to be held by the citizens in India, Pakistan, and Kashmir so that they could vote as to where Kashmir should accede to. This referendum that Mountbatten called for never took place and framed one of the legal disputes for Kashmir.
In the United Nations intervened and ordered a plebiscite to be taken in order to hear the voices of the Kashmiris if they would like to accede to Pakistan or India. This plebiscite left out the right for Kashmiris to have the right of self-determination and become an autonomous state. To this date the Kashmiris have been faced with numerous human rights violations committed by both India and Pakistan and have yet to gain complete autonomy which they have been seeking through self-determination.
The insurgency in Kashmir against Indian rule has existed in various forms. A widespread armed insurgency started in Kashmir against India rule in after allegations of rigging by the Indian government in the Jammu and Kashmir state election.
This led to some parties in the state assembly forming militant wings, which acted as a catalyst for the emergence of armed insurgency in the region. The conflict over Kashmir has resulted in tens of thousands of deaths. The Inter-Services Intelligence of Pakistan has been accused by India of supporting and training both pro-Pakistan and pro-independence militants to fight Indian security forces in Jammu and Kashmir, a charge that Pakistan denies.
According to official figures released in the Jammu and Kashmir assembly, there were 3, disappearance cases and the conflict has left more than 47, to , people dead as of July However, violence in the state had fallen sharply after the start of a slow-moving peace process between India and Pakistan. After the peace process failed in , mass demonstrations against Indian rule, and also low-scale militancy have emerged again.
However, despite boycott calls by separatist leaders in , the Jammu and Kashmir Assembly elections saw highest voters turnout in last 25 years since insurgency erupted. It considered as increase in faith of Kashmiri people in democratic process of India. However, activists say that the voter turnout is highly exaggerated and that elections are held under duress.
Votes are cast because the people want stable governance of the state, and this cannot be mistaken as an endorsement of Indian rule. Kurdistan is a historical region primarily inhabited by the Kurdish people of the middle east. The territory is currently part of 4 states Turkey, Iraq, Syria and Iran. There are Kurdish self-determination movements in each of the 4 states.
Iraqi Kurdistan has to date achieved the largest degree of self-determination through the formation of the Kurdistan Regional Government , an entity recognised by the Iraqi Federal Constitution. To date two separate Kurdish republics and one Kurdish Kingdom have declared sovereignty.
The Patriotic Union of Kurdistan which currently holds the Iraqi presidency and the Kurdistan Democratic Party which governs the Kurdistan Regional Government both explicitly commit themselves to the development of Kurdish self-determination, but opinions vary as to the question of self-determination sought within the current borders and countries.
Naga refers to a vaguely-defined conglomeration of distinct tribes living on the border of India and Burma. Each of these tribes lived in a sovereign village before the arrival of the British , but developed a common identity as the area was Christianized. After the British left India, a section of Nagas under the leadership of Angami Zapu Phizo sought to establish a separate country for the Nagas.
It waged a secessionist insurgency against the Government of India. The NNC collapsed after Phizo got his dissenters killed or forced them to seek refuge with the Government. Its efforts led to the creation of a separate Nagaland state within India in They envisage a sovereign, predominantly Christian nation called "Nagalim".
Another controversial episode with perhaps more relevance was the British beginning their exit from British Malaya. An experience concerned the findings of a United Nations Assessment Team that led the British territories of North Borneo and Sarawak in to determine whether or not the populations wished to become a part of the new Malaysia Federation.
It also sifted through letters and memoranda submitted by individuals, organisations and political parties. Cobbold concluded that around two thirds of the population favoured to the formation of Malaysia while the remaining third wanted either independence or continuing control by the United Kingdom. The United Nations team largely confirmed these findings, which were later accepted by the General Assembly, and both territories subsequently wish to form the new Federation of Malaysia.
The conclusions of both the Cobbold Commission and the United Nations team were arrived at without any referendums self-determination being held. Cyprus was settled by Mycenaean Greeks in two waves in the 2nd millennium BC. As a strategic location in the Middle East, it was subsequently occupied by several major powers, including the empires of the Assyrians, Egyptians and Persians, from whom the island was seized in BC by Alexander the Great. Following the death in of James II, the last Lusignan king, the Republic of Venice assumed control of the island, while the late king's Venetian widow, Queen Catherine Cornaro, reigned as figurehead.
Venice formally annexed the Kingdom of Cyprus in , following the abdication of Catherine. The Venetians fortified Nicosia by building the Walls of Nicosia, and used it as an important commercial hub.
Although the Lusignan French aristocracy remained the dominant social class in Cyprus throughout the medieval period, the former assumption that Greeks were treated only as serfs on the island is no longer considered by academics to be accurate. It is now accepted that the medieval period saw increasing numbers of Greek Cypriots elevated to the upper classes, a growing Greek middle ranks, and the Lusignan royal household even marrying Greeks.
Throughout Venetian rule, the Ottoman Empire frequently raided Cyprus. In the Ottomans destroyed Limassol and so fearing the worst, the Venetians also fortified Famagusta and Kyrenia. Invaded in , Turks controlled and solely governed all of the Cyprus island from till its leasing to the United Kingdom in Cyprus was placed under British administration based on Cyprus Convention in and formally annexed by Britain in The idea of separation for peace has been amplified by a UN-implemented population exchange agreement in Northern Cyprus fulfills all the classical criteria of statehood.
The United Nations itself works with Northern Cyprus law enforcement agencies and facilitates cooperation between the two parts of the island. In Canada, many in the province of Quebec have wanted the province to separate from Confederation. Section of the South African Constitution allows for the right to self-determination of a community, within the framework of "the right of the South African people as a whole to self-determination", and pursuant to national legislation.
Supporters of an independent Afrikaner homeland have argued that their goals are reasonable under this new legislation. The colonization of the North American continent and its Native American population has been the source of legal battles since the early 19th century. Many Native American tribes were resettled onto separate tracts of land reservations , which have retained a certain degree of autonomy within the United States. The federal government recognizes Tribal Sovereignty and has established a number of laws attempting to clarify the relationship among the federal, state, and tribal governments.
The Constitution and later federal laws recognize the local sovereignty of tribal nations, but do not recognize full sovereignty equivalent to that of foreign nations, hence the term "domestic dependent nations" to qualify the federally recognized tribes. It would comprise the Southwestern United States , historic territory of indigenous peoples and their descendants, as well as colonists and later settlers under the Spanish colonial and Mexican governments.
They believe this area should be the basis of forming an independent state of New Afrika , designed to have an African-American majority and political control. There are several active Hawaiian autonomy or independence movements, each with the goal of realizing some level of political control over single or several islands.
The groups range from those seeking territorial units similar to Indian reservations under the United States, with the least amount of independent control, to the Hawaiian sovereignty movement , which is projected to have the most amount of independence. The Hawaiian Sovereignty movement seeks to revive the Hawaiian nation under the Hawaiian constitution.
Supporters of this concept say that Hawaii retained its sovereignty while under control of the United States. Since , the U. Decolonization Committee has called for Puerto Rico 's "decolonization" and for the US to recognize the island's right to self-determination and independence. In the Decolonization Subcommittee called for the United Nations General Assembly to review the political status of Puerto Rico, a power reserved by the Resolution.
In the first plebscite, the commonwealth option won with In subsequent plebiscites in and , the status quo was favored. In a referendum that took place in November , a majority of Puerto Rican residents voted to change the territory's relationship with the United States, with the statehood option being the preferred option.
But a large number of ballots—one-third of all votes cast—were left blank on the question of preferred alternative status. Supporters of the commonwealth status had urged voters to blank their ballots. Many current US state, regional and city secession groups use the language of self-determination. Since the late 20th century, some states periodically discuss desires to secede from the United States.
In the case of Hawaii, the struggle for self-determination does not fall under secession, as it is less a break from federal administration, than a return to the process through which cession was claimed to have occurred: The self-determination of the West Papuan people has been violently suppressed by the Indonesian government since the withdrawal of Dutch colonial rule under the Netherlands New Guinea in There is an active movement based on the self-determination of the Sahrawi people in the Western Sahara region.
Morocco also claims the entire territory, and maintains control of about two-thirds of the region. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. If an external context allows a person to integrate regulation—they must feel competent, related and autonomous.
They must also understand the regulation in terms of their other goals to facilitate a sense of autonomy. White  and deCharms  proposed that the need for competence and autonomy is the basis of intrinsic motivation and behaviour. This is a link between people's basic needs and their motivations. Deci  found that offering people extrinsic rewards for behaviour that is intrinsically motivated undermined the intrinsic motivation as they grow less interested in it.
Initially intrinsically motivated behaviour becomes controlled by external rewards, which undermines their autonomy. Further research by Amabile, DeJong and Lepper  found other external factors like deadlines, which restrict and control, also decrease intrinsic motivation. Situations that give autonomy as opposed to taking it away also have a similar link to motivation. Studies looking at choice have found that increasing a participant's options and choices increases their intrinsic motivation.
Deci  found that giving people unexpected positive feedback on a task increases people's intrinsic motivation to do it, meaning that this was because the positive feedback was fulfilling people's need for competence. In fact, giving positive feedback on a task served only to increase people's intrinsic motivation and decreased extrinsic motivation for the task. Vallerand and Reid  found negative feedback has the opposite effect i.
During a study on the relationship between infants' attachment styles; their exhibition of mastery-oriented behaviour and their effect during play, Frodi, Bridges and Grolnick  failed to find significant effects: Obviously, replications of all the attachment-motivation relations are needed with different and larger samples.
SDT argues that needs are innate but can be developed in a social context. Some people develop stronger needs than others, creating individual differences. However, individual differences within the theory focus on concepts resulting from the degree to which needs have been satisfied or not satisfied. Causality orientations are motivational orientations that refer to either the way people orient to an environment and regulate their behaviour because of this or the extent to which they are self determined in general across many settings.
SDT created three orientations: According to the theory people have some amount of each of the orientations, which can be used to make predictions on a persons psychological health and behavioural outcomes. Life goals are long-term goals people use to guide their activities, and they fall into two categories: There have been several studies on this subject that chart intrinsic goals being associated with greater health, well being and performance.
Deci  investigated the effects of external rewards on intrinsic motivation in two laboratory and one field experiment. Based on the results from earlier animal and human studies regarding intrinsic motivation the author explored two possibilities. In the first two experiments he looked at the effect of extrinsic rewards in terms of a decrease in intrinsic motivation to perform a task. Earlier studies showed contradictory or inconclusive findings regarding decrease in performance on a task following an external reward.
The third experiment was based on findings of developmental learning theorists and looked at whether a different type of reward enhances intrinsic motivation to participate in an activity. This experiment tested the hypothesis that if an individual is intrinsically motivated to perform an activity, introduction of an extrinsic reward decreases the degree of intrinsic motivation to perform the task.
Each group participated in three sessions conducted on three different days. During the sessions, participants were engaged in working on a Soma cube puzzle—which the experimenters assumed was an activity college students would be intrinsically motivated to do.
The puzzle could be put together to form numerous different configurations. In each session, the participants were shown four different configurations drawn on a piece of paper and were asked to use the puzzle to reproduce the configurations while they were being timed.
The first and third session of the experimental condition were identical to control, but in the second session the participants in the experimental condition were given a dollar for completing each puzzle within time.
During the middle of each session, the experimenter left the room for eight minutes and the participants were told that they were free to do whatever they wanted during that time, while the experimenter observed during that period. The amount of time spent working on the puzzle during the free choice period was used to measure motivation.
As Deci expected, when external reward was introduced during session two, the participants spent more time working on the puzzles during the free choice period in comparison to session 1 and when the external reward was removed in the third session, the time spent working on the puzzle dropped lower than the first session. All subjects reported finding the task interesting and enjoyable at the end of each session, providing evidence for the experimenter's assumption that the task was intrinsically motivating for the college students.
The study showed some support of the experimenter's hypothesis and a trend towards decrease in intrinsic motivation was seen after money was provided to the participants as external reward. The second experiment was a field experiment, similar to laboratory Experiment I, but was conducted in a natural setting. Eight student workers were observed at a college biweekly newspaper. Four of the students served as a control group and worked on Friday. The experimental group worked on Tuesdays.
The control and experimental group students were not aware that they were being observed. The week observation was divided into three time periods. The task in this study required the students to write headlines for the newspaper. During "Time 2", the students in the experimental group were given 50 cents for each headline they wrote. At the end of Time 2, they were told that in the future the newspaper cannot pay them 50 cent for each headline anymore as the newspaper ran out of the money allocated for that and they were not paid for the headlines during Time 3.
The speed of task completion headlines was used as a measure of motivation in this experiment. Absences were used as a measure of attitudes. To assess the stability of the observed effect, the experimenter observed the students again Time 4 for two weeks. There was a gap of five weeks between Time 3 and Time 4. Due to absences and change in assignment etc.
The results of this experiment were similar to Experiment I and monetary reward was found to decrease the intrinsic motivation of the students, supporting Deci's hypothesis.
Experiment III was also conducted in the laboratory and was identical to Experiment I in all respects except for the kind of external reward provided to the students in experimental condition during Session 2. The experimenter hypothesized that a different type of reward—i. The results of the experiment III confirmed the hypothesis and the students' performance increased significantly during the third session in comparison to session one, showing that verbal praise and positive feedback enhances performance in tasks that a person is initially intrinsically motivated to perform.
This provides evidence that verbal praise as external reward increases intrinsic motivation. The author explained differences between the two types of external rewards as having different effects on intrinsic motivation. When a person is intrinsically motivated to perform a task and money is introduced to work on the task, the individual cognitively re-evaluates the importance of the task and the intrinsic motivation to perform the task because the individual finds it interesting shifts to extrinsic motivation and the primary focus changes from enjoying the task to gaining financial reward.
However, when verbal praise is provided in a similar situation increases intrinsic motivation as it is not evaluated to be controlled by external factors and the person sees the task as an enjoyable task that is performed autonomously. The increase in intrinsic motivation is explained by positive reinforcement and an increase in perceived locus of control to perform the task.
Pritchard, Campbell and Campbell  conducted a similar study to evaluate Deci's hypothesis regarding the role of extrinsic rewards on decreasing intrinsic motivation. Participants were randomly assigned to two groups.
A chess-problem task was used in this study. Data was collected in two sessions. Participants were asked to complete a background questionnaire that included questions on the amount of time the participant played chess during the week, the number of years that the participant has been playing chess for, amount of enjoyment the participant gets from playing the game, etc.
The participants in both groups were then told that the experimenter needed to enter the information in the computer and for the next 10 minutes the participant were free to do whatever they liked. The experimenter left the room for 10 minutes.
The room had similar chess-problem tasks on the table, some magazines as well as coffee was made available for the participants if they chose to have it. The time spent on the chess-problem task was observed through a one way mirror by the experimenter during the 10 minutes break and was used as a measure of intrinsic motivation.
After the experimenter returned, the experimental group was told that there was a monetary reward for the participant who could work on the most chess problems in the given time and that the reward is for this session only and would not be offered during the next session. The control group was not offered a monetary reward. After a filler task, the experimenter left the room for 10 minutes and the time participants spent on the chess-problem task was observed.
The experimental group was reminded that there was no reward for the task this time. After both sessions the participants were required to respond to questionnaires evaluating the task, i. Both groups reported that they found the task interesting.
The results of the study showed that the experimental group showed a significant decrease in time spent on the chess-problem task during the minute free time from session 1 to session 2 in comparison to the group that was not paid, thus confirming the hypothesis presented by Deci that contingent monetary reward for an activity decreases the intrinsic motivation to perform that activity. Other studies were conducted around this time focusing on other types of rewards as well as other external factors that play a role in decreasing intrinsic motivation.
Principles of SDT have been applied in many domains of life, e. Murcia, Roman, Galindo, Alonso and Gonzalez-Cutre  looked at the influence of peers on enjoyment in exercise. Specifically, the researchers looked at the effect of motivational climate generated by peers on exercisers by analyzing data collected through questionnaires and rating scales.
The assessment included evaluation of motivational climate, basic psychological needs satisfaction, levels of self-determination and self-regulation amotivation, external, introjected, identified and intrinsic regulation and also the assessment of the level of satisfaction and enjoyment in exercising.
Data analysis revealed that when peers are supportive and there is an emphasis on cooperation, effort, and personal improvement, the climate influences variables like basic psychological needs, motivation and enjoyment. The task climate positively predicted the three basic psychological needs competence, autonomy and relatedness and so positively predicted self-determined motivation.
Task climate and the resulting self-determination were also found to positively influence level of enjoyment the exercisers experienced during the activity. Awareness has always been associated with autonomous functioning; however, it was only recently that the SDT researchers incorporated the idea of mindfulness and its relationship with autonomous functioning and emotional wellbeing in their research.
Brown and Ryan  conducted a series of five experiments to study mindfulness: They defined mindfulness as open, undivided attention to what is happening within as well as around oneself. From their experiments, the authors concluded that when individuals act mindfully, their actions are consistent with their values and interest. Also, there is a possibility that being autonomous and performing an action because it is enjoyable to oneself increases mindful attention to one's actions.
Another area of interest for SDT researchers is the relationship between subjective vitality and self-regulation. Ryan and Deci  define vitality as energy available to the self, either directly or indirectly, from basic psychological needs.
This energy allows individuals to act autonomously. Many theorists have posited that self-regulation depletes energy but SDT researchers have proposed and demonstrated that only controlled regulation depletes energy, autonomous regulation can actually be vitalizing.
A recent study by Hyungshim Jang  in which the capacity of two different theoretical models of motivation were used to explain why an externally provided rationale for doing a particular assignment often helps in a student's motivation, engagement, and learning during relatively uninteresting learning activities. Students who received the rationale showed greater interest, work ethic, and determination.
Structural equation modeling was used to test three alternative explanatory models to understand why the rationale produced such benefits:. The data fit all three models; but only the model based on self-determination theory helped students to engage and learn.
Findings show the role that externally provided rationales can play in helping students generate the motivation they need to engage in and learn from uninteresting, but personally important, material. The importance of these findings to those in the field of education is that when teachers try to find ways to promote student's motivation during relatively uninteresting learning activities, they can successfully do so by promoting the value of the task.
One way teachers can help students value what they may deem "uninteresting" is by providing a rationale that identifies the lesson's otherwise hidden value, helps students understand why the lesson is genuinely worth their effort, and communicates why the lesson can be expected to be useful to them.
An example of SDT and education are Sudbury Model schools where people decide for themselves how to spend their days. In these schools, students of all ages determine what they do, as well as when, how, and where they do it. This freedom is at the heart of the school; it belongs to the students as their right, not to be violated. The fundamental premises of the school are simple: In practice this means that students initiate all their own activities and create their own environments.
The physical plant, the staff, and the equipment are there for the students to use as the need arises. The school provides a setting in which students are independent, are trusted, and are treated as responsible people; and a community in which students are exposed to the complexities of life in the framework of a participatory democracy.
Sudbury schools do not perform and do not offer evaluations, assessments, or recommendations, asserting that they do not rate people, and that school is not a judge; comparing students to each other, or to some standard that has been set is for them a violation of the student's right to privacy and to self-determination.
Students decide for themselves how to measure their progress as self-starting learners as a process of self-evaluation: According to self-determination theory,  individuals who attribute their actions to external circumstances rather than internal mechanisms are far more likely to succumb to peer pressure. In contrast, individuals who consider themselves autonomous tend to be initiators of actions rather than followers.
Research examining the relationship between self-determination theory and alcohol use among college students has indicated that individuals with the former criteria for decision making are associated with greater alcohol consumption and drinking as a function of social pressure. For instance, in a study conducted by Knee and Neighbors,  external factors in the individuals who claim to not be motivated by internal factors were found to be associated with drinking for extrinsic reasons, and with stronger perceptions of peer pressure, which in turn was related to heavier alcohol use.
Given the evidence suggesting a positive association between an outward motivation and drinking, and the potential role of perceived social influence in this association, understanding the precise nature of this relationship seems important. Further, it may be hypothesized that the relationship between self-determination and drinking may be mediated to some extent by the perceived approval of others.
Motivational interviewing MI is a popular approach to positive behavioral change. It is a client-centered method that doesn't persuade or coerce patients to change and instead attempts to explore and resolve their ambivalent feelings, which allows them to choose themselves whether to change or not.
They believe that MI provides an autonomy-supportive atmosphere, which allows clients to find their own source of motivation and achieve their own success in terms of overcoming addiction.
Patients randomly assigned to an MI treatment group found the setting to be more autonomy-supportive than those in a regular support group. Several studies explored the link between self-determination theory and environmental behaviors to determine the role of intrinsic motivation for environmental behavior performance and to account for the lack of success of current intervention strategies.
Environmental attitudes and knowledge are not good predictors of behavior. Self-determination theory suggests that motivation can predict behavior performance. Each item is scored on a Likert scale. The Amotivation toward the Environment Scale measures the four reasons for amotivation by answering a question 'Why are you not doing things for the environment? The participants rank 16 total statements four in each category of amotivation on a Likert scale.
Intervention strategies have to be effective in bridging the gap between attitudes and behaviors. Monetary incentives, persuasive communication, and convenience are often successful in the short term, but when the intervention is removed, behavior is discontinued. In the long run, such intervention strategies are therefore expensive and difficult to maintain. Self-determination theory explains that environmental behavior that is not motivated intrinsically is not persistent.
Self-Determination Theory (SDT) is a theory of motivation. It is concerned with supporting our natural or intrinsic tendencies to behave in effective and healthy ways. It is concerned with supporting our natural or intrinsic tendencies to behave in effective and healthy ways.
Self-Determination Theory, or SDT, is a theory that links personality, human motivation, and optimal functioning. It posits that there are two main types of motivation—intrinsic and extrinsic—and that both are powerful forces in shaping who we are and how we behave (Deci & Ryan, ).
Observations About Self-Determination Theory "SDT begins by embracing the assumption that all individuals have natural, innate, and constructive tendencies to develop an ever more elaborated and unified sense of self. Summary: Self-Determination Theory is a theory of motivation and personality that addresses three universal, innate and psychological needs: competence, autonomy, and psychological relatedness. Originators: Edward L. Deci and Richard M. Ryan, psychologists at the University of Rochester.
Self-Determination Theory, Celebration, Florida. 3, likes · talking about this. Self-Determination Theory is considered one of the leading.