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What on earth are Ontology and Epistemology?

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Often this development is aligned to the intellectual and experiential growth of the founding team. Microsoft and Apple where the leaders have empowered their teams and the organic internal growth evolves the brand and therefore could cause it to be more enduring and of course this is my experience and may not be true!

The Epistemology is about the information that counts as acceptable knowledge in NLP and how it should be acquired and interpreted. The two Ontological positions point to two of the main distinctions in the Epistemology of research in NLP ;.

Positivism does not allow for the subjective opinions of the researcher as the approach deals with verifiable observations and measurable relations between those observations, not with speculation and conjecture. It is therefore the more scientific perspective with no room here for the subjective opinions of the researcher as the approach deals with verifiable observations and measurable relations between them, not with speculation and conjecture.

The Interpretivist approach however, rejects absolute facts and suggests that facts are based on perception rather than objective truth. With this approach, the conclusions are derived from the interpretations of the participants rather than the abstract theories of the researcher or scientist. This means there is a challenge to understand the meanings that individuals and teams attach to their activities. There are no Universal laws or experiences as the world is always being developed and re-developed by reflective, thinking, feeling beings who are able to make a difference to their environment and the focus is usually on meaning and perceived realities rather than facts.

The researcher will often need to get some specialist knowledge in order to understand the meanings, values and contexts of their subjects e. Easterby-Smith, Thorpe et al. Which research questions might be best answered using each epistemological approach? There are implications for the researcher from both the Positivist and the Interpretivist approaches.

Alternatively Easterby-Smith, Thorpe et al. It is vital to decide on your approach before moving into your research design, and the impact of your choice upon design e.

The Landscape of Qualitative Research: Research Methods for Business Students 4 th ed. Financial Times Prentice Hall. What on earth are Ontology and Epistemology? By using this form you agree with the storage and handling of your data by this website. Facebook Twitter Linkedin Email. The two Ontological positions point to two of the main distinctions in the Epistemology of research in NLP ; Positivism and Interpretivism Positivism does not allow for the subjective opinions of the researcher as the approach deals with verifiable observations and measurable relations between those observations, not with speculation and conjecture.

Interpretivism The Interpretivist approach however, rejects absolute facts and suggests that facts are based on perception rather than objective truth.

Are able to carry out cross sectional analysis in order to identify regularities. Assignments using focus groups and creative methodologies with structured observation e. Epistemology and Ontology Corkill, It is vital to decide on your approach before moving into your research design, and the impact of your choice upon design e.

Oxford University Press Corkill ,D. Management Research, an introduction: Thomson Learning Saunders, M. Visited 63, times, 94 visits today. Relating ontology and epistemology to the methodology and methods of the scientific, interpretive, and critical research paradigms. English Language Teaching , 5 9 , pp. Notify me of follow-up comments by email. Notify me of new posts by email. Thanks a million brother Salma Patel. A scholastic, helpful post that made me understand the subject crystal clear.

On pondering this I came across a blog by Salma Patel which had a summary table that helped with some of my reflection. My drawing reflects me the […]. Oh my gosh, this is amazing.

And so, so helpful. Thank you for making it so clear. That table alone is worth a million bucks. Thank you so much for the knowledge you shared for us who are working on research as I was confused about these long words but the explanation provided for each word and their meaning, enlightening myself in research terminology for words like epistemology, ontology, and many more.

Thanks again and God bless. Thanks Salma This is very helpful, clearly laid out information. Hi Lauren, Thank you for your comment. I am very pleased to hear it was useful for your assignment. What an excellent explanation you have given brother.. It is really useful for my thesis works. Decided to keep in touch with your site… Thanks. Your explanation has made it all that much simpler.

Brilliant — thank you!! I re-read this information, and now I am now certain that I am locating my research in the correct paradigm of Pragmatism. So I am also using genealogy, which is part critical.

I have been pulling my hair out! Thank you for your explanation at least I can attempt my assignment.

I have been really pulling my hair out. Now I can attempt my assignment. Felt like I was a little lost until I came across your page. Thanks for your hard work! Absolutely useful guidelines as I embark on my doctoral journey.

I am busy with my research proposal and your post has come in handy and is helping me clarify my research methodology. I actually understand it!! What a great article and video! It was extremely helpful! Holistic and very useful materials. I must confess that this post helped to lift the burden of understanding this process few hours to the before submission of my Mphil-PhD transfer report.

This is absolutely resourceful Patel. Presented in such a manner that a layman can understand this process. Thanks once again as you have just saved a brother. Thanks for this article and the youtube video. Breaking the concepts down as you have done has really helped grasp these concepts as I commence my PhD studies.

The work is superb. It has assisted me great deal. Great site to make sense of big words in simple terms. Thank you for the insight and simplicity of approach. Thank you everyone for your lovely comments. I am truly pleased to hear this article has been useful to so many of you! Wishing you all the best with your research endeavors.

Thanks Salma, this was helpful, easy to understand and interesting above all. The presentation simplifies everything about research. I really appreciate your great effort for helping students who have been facing challenge with research.

Can you use the ontology and epistemology at the same time in the dissertation? Example say ontology of power is socially constructed and my epistemology to explain power is what? You would normally make reference to both Ontology and Epistemology in the thesis.

I am not sure if the example you have given is correct though. So ontology is a topic and epistemology finding how you arrive with the knowledge. Ontology can be positivist or non-positivist, subjective and objective. Very useful, You made this so simple. Well done and thanks for relieving me of some of the stress.

Can i only use the quantitative research approach while following the pragmatism paradigm. Thanks very much for this — after reading many text books and articles and still feeling lost, this was super helpful!! Is it in the Analysis part of your methods? Or is it in Design as it is supposed to influence your whole study?

Any recommendations or thoughts would be much appreciated! Hi Natalie, I have usually seen it reported in the methodology chapter — that is also where I placed mine. I hope that helps. Your information is very useful. I have really enjoyed reading it. I have little understanding of ontoloy and epistemology now. Hello,thank you so much saima,i am very happy that i found it the meaning of research paradigm.

God bless you saima patel!!!! Thank you for helping us to know critical things in precise ;concise; and simple manner. How ever, I would like forward one question for you. Is there an instance in which two or more research paradigm may likely included in single research?

Hi, Thank you so much for this. I would like to ask something: Thank you very much. Thank you so much. Thank you so much for creating this post Salma!

Thanks so much salma for sharing the very useful information. I have more learn about various types of research paradigm. Again thanks for sharing us. P, thank you so much for this explanation! Glad to know I have some place to go to for clarity. I wish all reviewers would read your article it is useful and clear.

I certainly will keep it in mind for my own future reviews. Hi, thanks for the information. I have a question that maybe you or someone can help me with. If symbolic interactionism is influenced by pragmatism, how did it end up being a interpretist theoretical perspective? I get that pragmatism states to use the best methods possible, but is there any more information on this? Many thanks in advance. This is a clear, logical post that provides explanation in an easily accessible fashion.

I am currently writing my Methods chapter and was struggling to understand a lot of the philosophical underpinnings piece. What you have provided here is very clear and comprehensive.

Thank you for sharing. I just wanted to say Thank you! Finally, someone who can explain all the jargon simply. I am so much better equipped both in my personal studies and in my academic career. Salma, I have shared this with many researchers and students and keep coming back to it. It is really an invaluable post and you have done the academic community a great service in sharing it. Just wanting to say thank you. That was extremely helpful. It is just so good! I am a PhD candidate and return to this page time and again.

Thank you for putting it together. Thank you for this very useful information. Please anyone, help me to understand that, where is the definition of Paradigm mentioned in the book of Kuhn Salma, Thank you so much for your time, effort and sharing your knowledge. Your website is invaluable and has really helped me feel confident about starting my thesis, after feeling completely lost and hopeless.

Ideally I should be able to clearly articulate to others what my research paradigm is, though I often find myself oscillating between different poles depending on the day of the […]. A well written article on the paradigms of research in social science. I found many insights regarding the topic. The tabular form is much interesting and comprehensive. This has been fantastic and has saved me from losing my mind. The detail is clear, simple and understandable.


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Identification of ontology at the start of the research process is critically important as it determines the choice of the research design. The figure below illustrates the consequent impact of ontology on the choice of research methods via epistemology, research approach, research strategy and methods of data collection and data analysis.

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By means of the Epistemology of the Known Subject, I hereby put forward renewed ontological and epistemological foundations for qualitative research, since the ontological proposal of such epistemology is grounded in a different conception of identity.

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What on earth are Ontology and Epistemology? Dr Sally Vanson I am an NLP Master Trainer, sit on the accreditation panel of ANLP, the Research Committee of ICF and am CEO of The Performance Solution where as well as training professional coaches to get accreditation through ICF, we have designed, developed and run the world’s first NLP based Masters’ degree. Epistemology, Ontology & Research Practice! 4 key items in the construction and process of research: 1. Methods - techniques or procedures 2. Methodology - strategy, plan or design linking the choice of methods to the desired outcomes 3. Theoretical perspectives - our philosophical stance.

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Research Paradigms: Ontology's, Epistemologies & Methods Terry Anderson PhD Seminar Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. Qualitative research is concerned with human behaviour, and why people act the way that they do. Common methods used for qualitative research include Interviews and Focus Groups and Group Interviews. Both these methods allow researchers to explore a topic in depth with one or two people at a time, or within a small group.