The classical writers were investigated in a new and different way, and were developed by the genius of Shelley and Keats; the Middle Ages incited the historical novels of Scott and the works of Coleridge, Southey, and many others; modern life were studied and critisized in the compositions of the fiction writers and the satirical writings of Byron.
Through distinguishing traits of their writings, the Romantic writers transformed the whole spirit of poetry in early nineteenth century. Romantic poetry was, however, a kind of verse distinct from anything before it both in form and subject matter. Its language was influenced by new thoughts of democratisation and simplicity in which artificial poetic diction was substituted by a form of language really spoken by common people. As a whole, Romanticism epitomizes a second revival of literature in England, particularly in lyric and narrative poetry which superseds the Augustan improvement of didactic and satiric forms.
This indeed was the epoch that saw the advent of those concepts of literature and of literary history, on which contemporary English scholarship has been established. It is clearly seen that though Romanticism came to an end at the beginning of the XIX century, its impact is still sensed in modern art and literature. Many notions developed in Romantic epoch, like creative imagination, nature, myth and symbolism, emotions and intuition, autonomy from regulations, spontaneity, plain language, individual experiences, democracy and freedom, as well as an attraction with the past, counting ancient myths and the mysticism of the Medieval age still continues to be the gist of literary writings.
Furthermore, Romanticism represented many of disagreements and ideological disputes that are at the core of the contemporary world; political liberty and oppression, individual and collective duties or liabilities, masculine and feminine roles until lately the established standard of Romanticism was almost entirely male , past, present, and future.
It has proven the foundation of the contemporary western worldview, which saw people as free individuals endeavouring fulfillment through democratic actions, rather than as restrained members of a conventional, authoritarian society. However, the most precious donation of Romanticism is the growth of the genius of two young poets, John Keats and Percy Bysshe Shelley, whose experiments with poetry and poetic diction conduced to the formation of modern-day literature.
Shelley is a supreme and creative lyrical writer in the English literature whose lyrical force is now asserted to be one of the major contributions to literature as have been the dramatic flair of Shakespeare. In some respects, Shelley is the quintessential Romantic poet, his eccentric and brief life with its outlandish unearthliness, his moods of delight and dreaminess, his elevated mythopoetic imagination, his ecstatic idealism, merging to form a widespread image of Romanticism.
Shelley was also a deep philosopher whose writings ask and reply many elemental inquiries in life. He was the first writer in English literature to portray the ordinary people as the only force capable of shifting the existing order of life. Shelley led the melody of verse to a degree of perfection unknown in English poetry before him. His rich imagination, his power of rhythmical expression, his harmonious lyricism and his passion for liberty made his poetry unequalled and brought him in a line with most momentous writers of the early nineteenth century.
Shelley had fervour for improving the world and this enthusiasm shines again and again in his writings, in glows that are now intensely comprehensible and exceptionally pure. His conviction in change, the equality of the genders, the strength of imagination and love are repeatedly communicated in his poems, and they provoked much disputes among his conformist confreres.
From the artistic point of view, the most visible characteristic of his verse is the rapturous yearning for Beauty and its glorious manifestation. More than any other Romantic poet, Shelley brought a stirred moral sanguinity to his compositions which he expected would influence his readers sensuously, morally and spiritually. His poetry is crowded with love, beauty, imagination and sinuosity that are the heart of romanticism. Keats was a zealous philosopher, as disclosed by his letters; in these he meditated on the essence of poetry and the poet and fought with the problems of anguish and demise.
He was the last eminent English writer to whom Greek mythology was an abiding and living source not only of delight but of elevated understanding of the natural world as well. Whilst Shelley was supporting unachievable reforms, and Byron enunciating his own egotism and the political dissatisfaction of his age, Keats dwelled apart from human race and from all political values, venerating beauty like a zealot, completely content to compose the things that were in his own heart, or to mirror the grandeur of the natural world as he noticed or desired it to be.
Like other great poets of his generation, Keats made the investigation of poetic imagination and creativity the prime pursuit of his verse.
Through the imaginary characters of goddesses Psyche and Melancholy, the natural symbol of the nightingale, and the man-made urn, Keats contemplated and verified his queries concerning the conditions that enables creativeness, the various forms the creativeness can take, the connection between nature and art, and the link between eternal art and its mortal creator.
Keats was the great expert of the Romantic ode. However, all through his career Keats displayed notable intellectual and artistic development. He would have produced more and superior narrative poetry, wherein human personages depicted with psychological discernment would have moved before a background of romantic beauty. Imagination, the Divine Vision. A further sign of the diminished stress placed on judgment is the Romantic attitude to form: Hand in hand with the new conception of poetry and the insistence on a new subject matter went a demand for new ways of writing.
It could not be, for them, the language of feeling, and Wordsworth accordingly sought to bring the language of poetry back to that of common speech. Nevertheless, when he published his preface to Lyrical Ballads in , the time was ripe for a change: Useful as it is to trace the common elements in Romantic poetry, there was little conformity among the poets themselves.
It is misleading to read the poetry of the first Romantics as if it had been written primarily to express their feelings. Their concern was rather to change the intellectual climate of the age. William Blake had been dissatisfied since boyhood with the current state of poetry and what he considered the irreligious drabness of contemporary thought. His early development of a protective shield of mocking humour with which to face a world in which science had become trifling and art inconsequential is visible in the satirical An Island in the Moon written c.
His desire for renewal encouraged him to view the outbreak of the French Revolution as a momentous event. In works such as The Marriage of Heaven and Hell —93 and Songs of Experience , he attacked the hypocrisies of the age and the impersonal cruelties resulting from the dominance of analytic reason in contemporary thought. Blake developed these ideas in the visionary narratives of Milton —08 and Jerusalem — Here, still using his own mythological characters, he portrayed the imaginative artist as the hero of society and suggested the possibility of redemption from the fallen or Urizenic condition.
William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge , meanwhile, were also exploring the implications of the French Revolution. Wordsworth, who lived in France in —92 and fathered an illegitimate child there, was distressed when, soon after his return, Britain declared war on the republic, dividing his allegiance.
For the rest of his career, he was to brood on those events, trying to develop a view of humanity that would be faithful to his twin sense of the pathos of individual human fates and the unrealized potentialities in humanity as a whole. His investigation of the relationship between nature and the human mind continued in the long autobiographical poem addressed to Coleridge and later titled The Prelude —99 in two books; in five books; in 13 books; revised continuously and published posthumously, The Prelude constitutes the most significant English expression of the Romantic discovery of the self as a topic for art and literature.
Intimations of Immortality from Recollections of Early Childhood. Simultaneously, his poetic output became sporadic. The work of both poets was directed back to national affairs during these years by the rise of Napoleon. In Wordsworth dedicated a number of sonnets to the patriotic cause. The death in of his brother John, who was a captain in the merchant navy , was a grim reminder that, while he had been living in retirement as a poet, others had been willing to sacrifice themselves.
From this time the theme of duty was to be prominent in his poetry. Both Wordsworth and Coleridge benefited from the advent in of the Regency, which brought a renewed interest in the arts.
A Vision; The Pains of Sleep was published in Biographia Literaria , an account of his own development, combined philosophy and literary criticism in a new way and made an enduring and important contribution to literary theory.
His later religious writings made a considerable impact on Victorian readers. Sir Walter Scott , by contrast, was thought of as a major poet for his vigorous and evocative verse narratives The Lay of the Last Minstrel and Marmion Other verse writers were also highly esteemed. Another admired poet of the day was Thomas Moore , whose Irish Melodies began to appear in His highly coloured narrative Lalla Rookh: An Oriental Romance and his satirical poetry were also immensely popular.
Charlotte Smith was not the only significant woman poet in this period. George Crabbe wrote poetry of another kind: He differs from the earlier Augustans, however, in his subject matter, concentrating on realistic, unsentimental accounts of the life of the poor and the middle classes. He shows considerable narrative gifts in his collections of verse tales in which he anticipates many short-story techniques and great powers of description.
His antipastoral The Village appeared in After a long silence, he returned to poetry with The Parish Register , The Borough , Tales in Verse , and Tales of the Hall , which gained him great popularity in the early 19th century. We welcome suggested improvements to any of our articles. You can make it easier for us to review and, hopefully, publish your contribution by keeping a few points in mind.
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Romanticism in literature, began around and lasted until Different from the classical ways of Neoclassical Age(), it relied on imagination, idealization of nature and freedom of thought and expression.
Romantic literature generated a different ‘creative spirit’ that displays itself in the poetry of Wordsworth, Coleridge, Shelley, Keats, Byron and in the prose of De Quincey, Lamb, .
The Romanticism was a period in which authors left classicism, age of reason, in the old world and started to offered imagination, emotions and a new literature that toward nature, humanity and society to espouse freedom and individualism. Romanticism is not the bastard child of the Enlightenment but its mistress’. Discuss with reference to ideas about ‘savage’ peoples. In this essay on Romanticism I intend to review some of the key ideas from political and economic philosophy and the general themes that characterised the thinking of the two movements. I hope to trace the course of the .
English literature - The Romantic period: As a term to cover the most distinctive writers who flourished in the last years of the 18th century and the first decades of the 19th, “Romantic” is indispensable but also a little misleading: there was no self-styled “Romantic movement” at the time, and the great writers of the period did not call themselves . Realism expressed a message that depicted situations realistically, whereas romanticism illustrated messages by using fiction. Both are informative reflections of American life and culture. Works Cited. Campbell, Donna M. "Realism in American Literature, ". Literary Movements. Dept. of English, Washington State University. 07 Sept